Friday, March 29, 2019
Is Globalization A New Phenomenon?
Is globalisation A New Phenomenon? orbiculateization is a actually complex subject matter that ignites many heat up debates among geographers, researchers and the general public a give c atomic number 18. Although it may be inter cogitate with many phrases such as global inter marryedness an attempt to define this in one doom would be futile, as rase with a neat deal discussion the diversity of aspects that this consideration encompasses is too wide of a spectrum for anyone to come to a single conclusion. in that location are many concepts of globalization and as Aart-Scholte (2005) has clearly attested to a gravider extent or less(prenominal) existing analysis of globalization is flawed due to redundant concepts interlinked to the idea. Universalization represents the most(prenominal) general outlook of globalization, where the exposure of foreign i contends and cultures worldwide blur the boundaries separating nations and diminishes a nations precise uniqueness. Inte rnationalization, easiness and westernization are also concepts comm sole(prenominal) linked to globalization, which deal with the more companionable, economical and political reachs of this process. As the subject matter in question revolves more around the economic and political power of globalization much more emphasis will be nucleated inside these boundaries.The age-old question many authors seem to dispute about is the tale of globalization. Is globalization a new phenomenon? Authors who affiliate globalization to internationalization and liberalization find this process to be one that had lingered since the early colonialist eras. Zevin (1992), Wade (1996), Hirst Thompson (1999), ORourke Williamson (1999) done research kick in obtained circumstantial evidence that levels of trade, migration and investment between countries were already prominent in the late 19th century. Hence do their run that there is nothing new in contemporary globalism much more convincing. O n the contrary other authors find that global relations only bloomed after advances in engine room that simplifies the accessibility of people and the media crossways great distances with technological innovations such as the invention of the jet aeroplane and computing device network, with what has been deemed the first global revolution and new realities by authors such as Drucker (1989) and King Schneider (1991). More realistically, I find the bespeaks brought up by authors like Roland Roberts (1994) to be much more compelling as the idea that globalization begun with what has been said to be a germination phase in the fifteenth to the mid 18th century and inevitably take off within the period of the mid 19th century makes perfect sense. At this point in time the globalization rate is astounding, where branches such as Walmart, Sony and til without delay Tesco are branching out from their mother countries to nation states. As these grand corporations are starting to domi nate the more politically and friendlyly unassertive smaller areas the economic control lays in the hand of these multi national corporations. but debate can bring the conclusion either way, whether it may avail the nation states with job opportunities and exposure to modern technology, yet the idea of maturation must always weigh heavily in the back of ones mind. As economic benefit will undoubtedly seep from the nation states to where the principal(prenominal) branch may be located.The statist mode of governance was greatly good forward the boom of globalization. When globalization began to broaden its scale this diminished what apply to be a more independent form of governance. As not only were most nation states dominated by polycentric regulations they were also accustomed the opportunity to engage overseas, countries they may not have been able to connect with before. The suprastates and global law may have a certain meter of control over the smaller areas stock-s till with the maturement of global currencies, even the most powerful state has no authority over cash supplies and exchange rates.International relations theorists discuss what was called the Westphalian mould, brought about in the 1600s. The intermission of Westphalia formalized the modern concept of a system of sovereign states. With this sovereignty, much like colonialism, each state would exercise and dominate their territorial jurisdiction. repayable to accelerated globalization the Westphalian practices had fallen into disuse. Large-scale globality made it impossible for statist constructions of sovereignity to reinforcement its governance over the designated territorial space. Again as mentioned before, the government is uneffective to keep track with the electronic money transfers and documented workers in a world of rapidly developing technology.One of many problems afflicting the world directly is leanness. World Bank figures (2001) regarding the population that l ive on less than the similar of $1 per day dropped from 1.4 billion persons in 1980 to 1.2 billion in 2001. Critics though have argued that the methodologies used in these calculations have changed over this period, so the figures cannot be safely compared (Wade, 2002). Global trade better the situation of poverty as NICs increase exports of global goods and services. For instance China tripled between the years of 1978 and 1993 with the commencement up of global commerce. This is not always the case as very few countries reach NIC status and global trade rules as sound as global financial crises bring dreadful impacts to the poor people. harmonise to Coote (1996) primary commodities have poorer countries relying on exports yet even with an increase in globalization there was a steady decrease in profit from trade in the 1970s. World prices of primary commodities in mid mid-nineties stood at its lowest level since 1930s (ul Haq et al. 199529). It is clear that the problem of pov erty even with the promises that come with globalization, for instance job employment and the growth of industry, has not been completely been eradicated.There are many concerns that globalization has made its impact upon. One of which being crime. Globalization creates more opportunities to combat crime. Advanced technology increases the efficiency of surveillance and counter terror units hence theoretically making the crime rate decrease. except, looking at it in a opposite perspective globalization provide criminals with important tools to commit unlawful acts as does networking, introduced with globalization, strengthen the bond of powerful criminal organizations. Money laundering now stands at levels equivalent to 2-5 per cent of the world GDP per annum (FATF, 2004)Peace on the opposite end of the spectrum is also heavily affected by globalization. Global connectivity introduces disincentives for war among OEDC states. The signing of the nuclear non-proliferation treaty regim e, established in 1968 through the IAEA, discouraged the spread of nuclear weapons to more state arsenals. This treaty, however unsuccessful, was an attempt to control the arms rate of which global governance makes more manageable. Global reach, however, can send military interventions from north to south with ease. The advances in technology also help raise the destructive capacities of war. As mentioned before having media so easily accessible the profile of terrorist politics will be greatly highlighted hence leading to feelings of uncertainty and insecurity amongst the general public. affectionate cohesion is an important point of interest within the field of globalization. Neoliberalism exploits the hearty relation and looks at it as a competition for a prepare in the global marketplace. Which leads to a lack of cooperation and no collective interest. However a guaranteed state-nation-country-society-unit built up with largish-scale growth of global spaces makes this very co hesion unfeasible. Globalization though maybe advantageous to the uprising of social cohesion may cause the complete opposite. As brought up by Scholte (2004) of how the global civil society has often undermined rather than forward social integration. Global relations may lead to a lack of intimacy as technological advances would promote web conferences and personal meetings would but be a thing of the past. Companies hold on to limited long-term commitments and workers have restricted opportunities locally before the labor market calls them.Ecology plays a major role in the topic of globalization as the family between humans and the environment is just as important as the relationship between nations. Nature is highly unpredictable and with technology linked to globalization prediction of natural disasters is possible with satellite surveillance and digital processing. Having advanced media coverage can reduce the disastrous outcome of a natural disaster and also raise awareness for aid across nations. Take Haiti for example, a highly telecasted disaster of which media is playing a large role for relief, the Hope for Haiti benefit. There is also a downfall to the advancements of technology as pollution is generally the outcome of new innovations. For instance, aeroplanes and motorships pose great threats to the sea and air with the amount of waste it produces. Also as globalization has successfully made the world smaller with advancements in the transport system, some(a) companies mainly those that produce highly toxic waste products, have kaput(p) global in part to relocate at sites where environmental regulations are less stringent (Heerings and Zeldenrust, 1995). Hence foreshadowing a slowly deteriorating environment.As globalization is a particularly broad subject matter it is vexed to restrain myself into a certain parameter. The process of globalization touches on most aspects of human geography, as it affects not only the social and political aspec ts of a country and its relationship with the world, but also environmental issues. There is no way in halting this process, as it is one for inevitable development hence supervision is key to determine positive results.Total 1521 row