Friday, May 31, 2019
You are to identify a social issue and research on at least 3 social curriculums or efforts that try/tried to address this issue. For each program, you should look at -Facts of the program (NPO, beneficiaries, country or region of efforts)-Objective(s) of program-Whether the program has meet its objective(s), and how far are they away from it-Evaluation of the success of the programAccording to the 2013 factsheet for the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDG), enrolment in essential education in developing regions reached 90 per cent in 2010, up from 82 per cent in 1999, which means more kids than ever are care primary school. (Goal 2 Achieve, n.d.) However, 57 million children of primary school education age were out of school. Globally, 123 million youths aged 15 to 24 were wish of basic reading and writing skills and 61 per cent of them are young women. (Goal 2 Achieve, n.d.) Gender gaps in youth literacy rates are improving, from 90 literate young women for every 10 0 young men in 1990 to 95 women in 2010. (Goal 2 Achieve, n.d.) In Singapore, primary education was do compulsory for all children who are above the age of 6 years and who has not yet reach the age of 15 years. (Compulsory education, n.d.)Factors that are associated to privation such as unemployment, physical health conditions and the illiteracy of parents increases the risk of children otiose to attend school and drop-out from school. (Right to education, n.d.) Due to the lack of access to education, adults are unable to get a stable job to generate income for the family. The poverty cycle continues when parents could not afford to send their children to school. Undeniably, many children who were living in poverty ... ...nistry of bringing up Singapore. Retrieved from http//www.moe.gov.sg/committee-of-supply-debate/files/supporting-singaporean-students.pdfFinancial assistance and bursary schemes. (n.d.). Retrieved from http//www.moe.gov.sg/initiatives/financial-assistance/Fema le secondary school assistance project, bangladesh. In Retrieved from http//siteresources.worldbank.org/INTEMPOWERMENT/Resources/14828_Bangladesh-web.pdfStipends triple girls access to school. (2009, October). Retrieved from http//web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOUTUS/IDA/0,,contentMDK21227882menuPK3266877pagePK51236175piPK437394theSitePK73154,00.htmlWhat is ida?. (n.d.). Retrieved from http//www.worldbank.org/ida/what-is-ida.htmlQuality primary education in bangladesh In United Nations Childrens Fund. Retrieved from http//www.unicef.org/bangladesh/Quality_Primary_Education(1).pdf
Thursday, May 30, 2019
Anybody living in the United States in the early 1990s and paying even a whisper of attention to the periodic news or a daily paper could be forgiven for having been scared out of his skin... The culprit was crime. It had been rising relentlessly - a graph plotting the crime consecrate in any American city over recent decades looked like a ski slope in profile... Death by gunfire, intentional and otherwise, had let commonplace, So in like manner had carjacking and crack dealing, robbery, and rape. Violent crime was a gruesome and constant companion...The culprit was the so-called superpredator. For a time, he was everywhere. Glowering from the go forward of newsweeklies. Swaggering his way through foot-thick government reports. He was a scrawny, big-city teenager with a cheap gun in his hand and nothing in his embrace but ruthlessness. There were thousands out there just like him we were told, a generation of killers about to hurl the country into deepest chaos...Criminologist James Alan Fox predicted two outcomes. The positive that the rate of teen homicides would rise another fifteen percent over the next decade. The pessimistic that it would more than double...Then all of a sudden, instead of difference up and up and up, the crime rate began to fall. And fall and fall and fall some more. The crime drop was startling in several respects. It was ubiquitous, with every family line of crime in every part of the country. It was persistent, with incremental decreases year after year. And it was entirely unanticipated, especially because the public had been anticipating the opposite...Even though the experts had failed to anticipate the crime drop, which was in fact well under way even as they made their horrifying predictions, they now hurried to... ...age. Levitt searchs this passage with the same approach that he uses to explore the cloak-and-dagger side of many other such examples in society that have been overlooked and accepted as conventional wis dom for far too long. Take the parents who feel confident that they have made the right decision to forbid their child to play at a friend?s business firm whose family owns a gun, but allows their child to play at a friend?s house that has a pool. Levitt shows that the child is about ten thousand time more likely to drown in the swimming pool than in a gun accident, but that the violent conventional mindset associated with guns wrongly portrays their capableness of causing death. Through these examples, Levitt establishes Freakonomics as a way by which the reader should live their life, never totally accepting something until every stone has been upturned, eventually exposing its hidden
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
Canadas tried to remove assurances that Canada would support its allies in future wars, but failed. In 1921, Canadas population was somewhat 9 million citizens from which the majority was English Canadians. Canada was troubled by the lack of unity with its people. Disagreements and arguments arose that interfere governments policies Many French Canadians wanted to differentiate Quebec from the rest of Canada. In the general elections held in 1921, the liberal Party held the most seats and won the elections. The liberal party was led by Mackenzie King. Mackenzie King served as a prime minister of Canada three times from 1921 to 1926, 1926 to 1930, and 1935 to 1948. He worked to improve Canadian self-government in foreign relations and to unite English and French Canadians. J.S Woodsworth together with William Irvine won seats in the Canadian Parliament. Together they wanted churches in Canada and that the government to become more active on such neighborly issues as alcohol abuse, the hardship of immigrants, labor conditions, poverty and prostitution. Canada was asked and other dominions to send troops to help participate to help the British to hold a spotlight at the Turkish port in Chanak. Canada disagreed to support Britain in the potential war with Turkey. First time, Canada did not automatically support Britain in war. In the over-embellished Conference in London, Mackenzie King eager for having a common foreign rule for all the British Empire. In 1923 Canada signed freely with the U.S. the halibut conformity to control fishing in the Atlantic, pacific oceans and the Great Lakes. First time, Canada signed a treaty without including Britain. At the Imperial Conference Canada was allowed to sign treaties on i... ...the Canadian confederation in 1949. 1972, British citizens living in Canada are no longer able to vote in the Canadian elections. Canadian medals for military courage, prowess and valor were created and given. 1980, the Canadian national an them was created. Dominion day is renamed Canada Day 2004, letter of credibility from foreign ambassadors are now formally addressed to the governor general of Canada. 1982,Constitution act is revised No longer can the British parliament make changes in Canadas constitution. In 1925 Mackenzie King made his depression idea for the national sag of Canada, it was very hard to get an approval, agreement among all. In 1946, King selected a parliamentary committee to choose a flag design. On Feb, 15, 1965 Canada had its own national flag. Union Jack was Canadas unofficial national flag, it was Britains flag
Vonneguts Changing Women     What follows is an argument to the effect that, in the novels written before 1973, Vonneguts female characters generally argon pre displaceed negatively, either as pro-authority anti-individualists or as disoriented or male-manipulated victims who never "grow" in either a personal or literary sense. In addition I maintain that, in at least two of Vonneguts later novels, certain female characters exercise individuality in their own existences and effect positively the awareness and attitudes of male characters.     From the beginning of sham Piano (1952) through Slaughterhouse Five (1969), Kurt Vonnegut describes the characters of his various worlds in terms of their victimization at the hands of a dehumanizing, or perhaps a expose term might be "deindividualizing," technologically fixated, industrial/militaristic society. Time and time again in these novels the role of the individual is subsumed in the miasma that passes for " friendly responsibility." Like the real world in which every human being exists, Vonneguts literary worlds feature nameless and faceless authorities (when such authorities are offered at all) who seem to be the masters in local, regional, global, and sometimes interstellar chess games. Often, as is the case in Vonneguts 1951 "All the Kings Men," these "manipulators" move their all-too-sentient pieces in what at times, for the victims, must seem to be diabolical--and what certainly are tragic--maneuvers.     In The Sirens of Titan (1959) and Slaughterhouse Five the "accidental" nature or intergalactic point of pot of the authority that seems to be "in charge of things" serves to distance humans from personal responsibility for the results of such maneuvering--as such results are described in the novels. In Sirens, for example, the contradictory and often asinine behaviors of Malachi Constant are shown to be products of the direct influence of the Tralfamadorians who for millennia have manipulated human societies simply to communicate with a mechanized messenger shipwrecked on Saturns largest moon. The same excuse can be made for the ultimate human manipulator in the novel, Winston Niles Rumfoord, as it can for the actions and attitudes of Bee, Rumfoords wife and the mother of Constants son, Chrono. That the communications sent to Salo on Titan consist of such inane and, given the non-human nature of the receiver, unimportant content as, "Be patient. We havent forgotten about you," and, "You will be on your way before you know it" (271), only makes more pathetic the fact that Tralfamadore has influenced directly the rise and fall of countless human civilizations in order to submit such messages.
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
Science applied science CompanyBill Watson of Science Technology Company (STC) should not discuss thecurrent 5-year financing plan prepared by Harry Finson, the chieffinancial officer, at the forthcoming board meeting. The assiduitythat STC is in has short product life cycle, rapid technologyobsolescence and fast growth with increasing competition. In fact,STCs strategy to survive the competition is to keep leadership inATE segment and to further compete in the large scale integrated(VLSI) circuits segment by chasing market share and dispersion high R&Dcost over large sales. However, the large sales growth seems to bemore difficult to obtain with the newly added competition. found onhistorical trend, level of competition, and other related industryfigures It is suggested that a more reasonable 12.8% annual growthprojection be used. STC is losing cash bleed in both its operating andinvesting activities therefore projections of 30% sales growth areoverly optimistic and unreliable .When STC began they only competed against a handful of companies, andalthough they soon hold the dominant share of the market, thisincrease in competition could upset future revenue. Increasingcompetition in the ATE segment will inescapably induce price wars,which will further deplete the profit margin of the company. If pricewars were to take place, Teradyne seems to be the reasonable winner. In fact, over the last 5 years, Teradyne has amassed a tota...
Science Technology CompanyBill Watson of Science Technology Company (STC) should not discuss thecurrent 5-year financing be after prepared by Harry Finson, the chieffinancial officer, at the forthcoming board meeting. The industriousnessthat STC is in has short product life cycle, rapid applied scienceobsolescence and fast growth with increasing disputation. In fact,STCs strategy to survive the competition is to maintain leadership inATE segment and to further compete in the large scale integrated(VLSI) circuits segment by chasing market share and spreading high R&Dcost over large sales. However, the large sales growth seems to bemore difficult to obtain with the newly added competition. Based onhistorical trend, level of competition, and other related industryfigures It is suggested that a more reasonable 12.8% annual growthprojection be used. STC is losing cash flow in both its operating andinvesting activities therefore projections of 30% sales growth areoverly optimistic and unreliable.When STC began they only competed against a handful of companies, andalthough they currently hold the dominant share of the market, thisincrease in competition could upset future revenue. Increasingcompetition in the ATE segment will inevitably induce price wars,which will further deplete the hit margin of the company. If pricewars were to take place, Teradyne seems to be the reasonable winner. In fact, over the last 5 years, Teradyne has amassed a tota...
Monday, May 27, 2019
Explain the main differences between communicating with adults and communicating with children and young people Essay
When we communicate with people be it peasantren young people or adults we adapt our confabulation to the appropriate language. We leave do this automatically if we be in a meeting with other professionals, we will act and speak in a formal and professional manner, whilst mouth to a infant we will be more animated and speak in a higher voice which we know will curb the babies attention.So when I communicate with fryren I need to be clear so they behind understand what is expected of them. I doMake eye contactUse verbal and non-verbal communion (signing using sign along) I appoint sure I speak clearlyI only give as much information that is undeniableRepeat myself when neededAsk a child to look at me if there attention is strayingI will smile to encourage them to keep speakI try to ask extra questions to encourage them to keep the conversation goingI ask them how they would make a one news answer into a sentence encourage them by giving them the words to make that sentenceI also use PECs asking the child would they like juice or milk ECT.The child will then choose the appropriate sign this is a very good form of communication when a child refuses to speak or does not acquit the vocabularyOther forms of communication I use are big macs jelly beans which can be programed or hooked up to computers, they can also be place on mount on a wheelchair for those who are infirmed, I have had many a wonderful lesson with children who use these, as they love to be able to join in and even show off there skills, they intent very much apart of the group showing how happy they are by laughing and smiling.I dontInterrupt children whilst they are speaking as this discourages the child from wanting to approach me in the future Will never dismiss what a child as to say because as this is cognise to lower self esteem) Dont laugh atwhat a child is sayingHurry a child when they are speakingI know that at all times I need to keep my relationship with the children I work wi th that of a formal none not allowing to effect over familiar as one child who as special needs did whilst in the play ground he came up to me put his fortify round me and give tongue to hi miss, I move away from the child then turned round faced the child and told him that was unacceptable behavior and that it was not nice to get into someone personal space and he was not to do it again, he said he was sorry and would not do it again, the child understood what personal space ment as he was of secondary school age .I then reported the incident to my line manager, as this was a cause for concern that had come up in the daily meeting with regards to the student behavior. On another occasion a new pupil who had exclusively started in year seven was in tears so I approached the child not being sure of his name I first said hi whats your name?He said his name, I then asked him why he was crying, he said he was new to the school and was frightened, I told him not to worry as lots of c hildren feel frightened when they come to a new school, I asked him would he like to walk round the vacation spot with me, I let him link me for comfort to make him feel he had a friend, while we walked I asked him question i.e. which school he came from ect service of process to build his confidence after awhile he was smiling feeling better, I then introduced him to other children I knew would look after him, the result was a week later he came to me and told me he was not scared anymore and that he quite liked redwood school.As teaching assistants we can make a big difference to children and young adults lives by using the skills we have hound during our life.
Sunday, May 26, 2019
resoluteness Key Review Questions and Rationales1. decide P, acute pain E, link to incisional trauma S, evidenced by pain reported at 7, with guarding, and curtail turning and positioning. The PES format stands for P (problem), E (etiology or tie in factor), and S (symptoms or defining characteristics).2. execute 1, 4.Answer 1 is stated correctly, with the related factor being the perseverings response to a health problem. Answer 4, risk for infection, is a risk factor for an at-risk diagnosis. In all cases the related factor or risk factor is a condition for which the nurse force out implement preventive measures. Answer 2 is incorrect since chronic emphysema is a medical diagnosis. Answer 3 is not a NANDA-I sanction nursing diagnosis.3. Answer 3.In the review of data, the nurse compares defining characteristics for the two nursing diagnoses and selects one based on the interpretation of data. Making a diagnostic statement is incorrect because the nurse has not included a related factor. fill moreHow to write a diagnostic essay.4. Answer 3.A patients readiness for enhanced communication is an example of a health-promotion diagnosis because it implies the patients motivation and desire to strengthen his health.5. Answer 3, 4.In swear out 3 the nurse fails to validate her assessment findings of edema, either by using a scale to measure the severity or by asking a colleague to validate her findings. In answer 4 the nurse prematurely closes clustering, which can lead to an in straight diagnosis. In answer 1 the nurse validatesfindings to make an accurate diagnosis. In answer 2 the nurse interprets cue clusters to make an accurate diagnosis.6. Answer 4.In this example intestinal colitis is a medical diagnosis and thus an incorrect diagnostic statement.7. Answer 2, 3, 4, 1.8. Answer 1 a, 2 b and d, 3 e, 4 c.Choice a is an example of lack of skill, an error in collecting data. Choice b is an example of using an poor number of cues, an error in interpret ation. Choice c is an example of not accurately identifying the problem, a labeling error. Choice d is an example of not incorporating cultural info into the diagnostic process, an error in interpretation. Choice e is an example of incorrect clustering, a clustering error.9. Answer 1, 2, 4.Diagnosis 1 uses a medical diagnosis as a related factor. Diagnosis 2 uses a clinical sign rather than a treatable etiology such as excess echo in environment. Diagnosis 4 uses a diagnostic study as the etiology. None of the etiologies can be managed or treated by nursing intervention.10. Answer 2, 4, 5.The presence of abdominal pain, distention, and a change in bowel elimination pattern forms a cluster, suggesting an elimination problem.11. Answer The best way to understand the answer to this question is to have a list of NANDA-I nursing diagnoses and their defining characteristics. For example, the nursing diagnosis of constipation is a possible choice. Examples of additional defining characte ristics for which the nurse power assess include checking the quality of bowel sounds, palpating the abdomen for a possible mass, observing the character of any stool that is passed, asking the patient if she is passing flatus.12. Answer 2, 3, 5.Pacing, getting lost, and hyperactivity are a cluster of defining characteristics that point to the diagnostic label of wandering.13. Answer 2, 3.Hemorrhage and wound infection are collaborative problems, true or potential physiological complications. Nurses typically monitor for these to detect changes in a patients status. Nausea and fear are both NANDA-I approved nursing diagnoses.14. Answer 3.Answer 3 is an accurate NANDA-I approved nursing diagnosis with an appropriate etiology. Answer 1 is a goal with an etiologic factor. Answer 2 is a goal with a diagnostic statement. Answer 4 is a nursing diagnostic label with a clinical sign.15. Answer 1.A risk diagnosis does not have defining characteristics, but instead risk factors. Risk factors are the environmental, physiological, psychological, genetic, or chemical elements that place a soul at risk for a health problem.
Saturday, May 25, 2019
Diversity is what the world is made of. Without diversity, the world would be an uninteresting and inhospitable place. Without diversity, there would be no variety of opinions or alternate views. in that location would be no different views or ways of thinking. Being diverse provides a way for people to express opinions and views to others who may not have image a situation the same. Four factors that cause diversity argon ethnicity, gender, religion and sexual affinity. These groups have an outcome on the course of daily choices. The author of this account will look into each of the groups and how the aspects have an impact on individual behavior.Ethnicity has an influence on behavior that cannot easily be ignored. At work the influences of ones ethnicity is dealt with e trulyday. African-American stereotypes have led to being black as similar to having a felony conviction when regarding the chances of finding a job. The results of a study suggested black men essential work at least twice as hard as equally qualified white men to rise above the stigma their climb color provides (Pager, 2009).The humiliation is, for the most part, due to labeling. According to Devine and Elliot (1995), in the 1930s the adjectives used to describe an African-American were superstitious, lazy, and ignorant, and today the adjectives vary from unintelligent, loud, and criminal to musical, athletic and very religious. Discrimination is often difficult to observe, and yet, despite the antidiscrimination laws discrimination still occurs.The author of this paper is a case manager for individuals with developmental disabilities, and observes the subtle nuance of credulity almost on a day to day basis. Being articulate and having a name that belies the true ethnicity frequently surprises people when meeting in person.The stunned expression is not easily hidden regardless of ones efforts to mask it. Statements such as you sounded different over the phone, or you look zilch as I i magined are uttered frequently during these meetings. After such meetings, those who are truly prejudiced will request to work with someone else good-looking superficial explanations to the request.For example, we prefer to work with someone with more than than pay off, or with a man, regardless of the fact the author has more than 20 years of experience in the profession.Being African-American has its hardships. In addition to that adversity, consider the privation of being an African-American cleaning lady. The authors supervisor admitted to being cautious with relaying the selective information about the requests of those who had recently met the author in person. Why was the supervisor afraid to approach the author? Because, the African-American charwoman is often portrayed as a defiant, smart-mouthed, sassy, finger-waving and eye-rolling person, it is easy to understand her hero-worship. The African-American woman has to be diligent in the efforts to contradict the assum ptions.Just being female impacts a womans behavior. Women are portrayed as and believed to be whiners, nags, flakes and shopaholics. Women are thought to be helpless and in need of rescuing by a man, of course. In the business world veritable jobs have traditionally been considered gender specific. A woman who holds a stereotypical masculine position, such as construction foreman, is capable to use the equipment barely as successfully has the men, but often the men see her as delicate unable to work too hard, resulting in less productivity and more stress in the workplace. Women want the same respect, opportunities and responsibilities as men. However, chauvinistic attitudes often obstruct a womans advancement. The author has overheard such comments as she doesnt need a promotion, her husband makes more, presuming a female employee has no right to a full fledged career, or a larger wages comparable to the male employees. Surprisingly, the comment was made by a female.Sexism is ev ident in all areas of life. For example, people debate if women should play a sport traditionally played by men. The year 1896 is when women playing football was first documented. The mens reaction to the football game was mentioned more than the game itself the crowd of men looking on, excited by the struggle, closed in with a rush. It was not until 1970 that a woman was allowed to play on a mens semipro football team and not until 1999 didThe Womens Professional Football League begin playing professional womens tackle football games (Womens Professional Football League, n.d).Sexism exists in religion as well. To the Catholic Church, Mary, the mother of God is the most perfect human being. Yet, a woman cannot be ordained as a priest. The womans highest role in the Catholic Church is that of a Nun a servant living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. In other faiths women have more of a role, for instance in the Episcopalian religion a woman may be a priest.In Judaism rab bis have been known to depict women as envious, unproductive, lazy, greedy, and prone to gossip. In Judaism a Jewish womans role in life is traditionally a wife, mother and keeper of the household. The Jewish woman knows her place and the depictions have discouraged many women from pursuing an education, career advancement and sexual affinity (Marcy Hyatt, personal communication, January 7, 2009).Marcy Hyatt, a Jewish woman and a homosexual, excessively reported her experience of being homosexual and being Jewish as parallel. She has fought prejudice and fought for civil rights, and although she no longer has to fear being visible, she continues to work to harbor her self-worth in the face of ignorance and bigotry.According to the American Psychological Association (2004) while sexual orientation is not a conscious choice that can be voluntarily changed, several homosexual and bisexual people seek to change their sexual orientation through therapy, often coerced by family members or religious groups. In the United States, homosexual and bisexual people often meet widespread violence, discrimination, and prejudice. The discrimination takes many forms from being denied raises, promotions and getting poor performance evaluations to bullying in schools. The fear of being known as a homosexual or bisexual has led to men hiding sexual orientation from loved ones and doctors thereby possibly putting themselves and loved ones at an increased risk for HIV/AIDS.Regardless of the fact that no one can avoid diversity, people fear differences and seek only what is perceived as safe remaining ignorant to what others have to offer. Fearing people different from us is a natural tendency because of how we were raised. When we cover up one another as individuals with feelings, then we will experience true multiculturalism.
Friday, May 24, 2019
redevelopment Tax is a form of indirect assess imposed on specified gains called taxable services. Service tax cannot be levied on any service which is not included in the list of taxable services. Over the past few years, service tax been expanded to cover new services. The objective behind levying service tax is to reduce the degree of intensity of taxation on manufacturing and trade without forcing the government to agree on the revenue needs. The intention of the government is to gradually increase the list of taxable services until most services fall within the scope of service tax.For the purpose of levying service tax, the value of any taxable service should be the gross amount charged by the service provider for the service rendered by him. Service Tax was first brought into force with effect from 1 July 1994. All service providers in India, except those in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, are required to reach a Service Tax in India. Initially only three services were br ought under the net of service tax and the tax rate was 5%. Gradually more services came under the ambit of Service Tax.The rate of tax was increased from 5% to 8% w. e. f 14 May 2003. From 10 September 2004 the rate of Service Tax was enhanced to 10% from 8%. Besides this 2% education cess on the amount of Service Tax was in addition introduced. In the Union Budget of India for the year 2006-2007, service tax was increased from 10% to 12%. On February 24, 2009 in order to give relief to the manufacturing reeling under the impact of economic recession, The rate of Service Tax was reduced from 12 per cent to 10 per cent.
Thursday, May 23, 2019
Doing business abroad introduces international business people to differences in approaches to business, business etiquette and protocol. Although these may not be crucial to business proceedings they should not be dismissed as unnecessary. Cross cultural awargonness can enhance the potential of the international business persons trip con placerably. Let us search at a brief example There are two business people each planning on doing business in Italy. any(prenominal)(prenominal) have similar proposals. One ignores the possible impact of culture and concentrates their efforts on the business proposal.The other also invests clock and energy in the proposal that in addition realises that doing business in Italy is a lot different to doing business in the UK or USA. They look into the business etiquette of Italy, the way in which meetings are placeed and negotiation styles. Nine times out of ten the latter of the two go forth have the advantage. They will be able to tailor thei r proposal and demeanour to gel better with the Italian way. In addition, they would endear themselves to the Italian militarys.This guide to doing business in Italy is designed as a brief introduction to areas business people should take into consideration before travelling to Italy. Doing Business Etiquette Good manners and courtesy are prized qualities in Italy. When doing business in Italy ensure your conduct is always polished. There are etiquettes and protocols for many social and business situations, however, it is important to remember that Italians rate considerateness above behavioural formulas. When meeting and departing always shake up hands. This is valid for both individuals and groups.After doing business in Italy for a period of time and building relationships do not be surprised if you are embraced when be met. This indicates the relationship has reached an intimate level. When doing business in Italy you will notice that little personal space is left between p eople when interacting. In addition, Italians are a tactile people. Moving away or keeping your distance may be interpreted as cold and unfriendly. If you are familiar with Italian, use the well-behaved lei form until a relationship is established, then use the more informal tu form.When doing business in Italy, address people using Signor (m) or Signora (f) followed by their surname. Dottore (m) or Dottoressa (f) is used for those who have graduated. When doing business in Italy, dress to impress. It is no coincidence that Versace, Gucci, Prada and Dolce & Gabbana are all Italian fashion houses. Italians like to make an smell with their clothes. What you wear speaks volumes about the kind of person you are. Doing Business Punctuality Italians are usually relaxed around issues relating to time. Being late with a good reason will not have any negative consequences.However, deliberate lateness is considered sloppy and taking peoples time for granted is simply rude. When doing busin ess in Italy err on the side of caution and aim to be punctual. Doing Business Business Entertaining Hospitality plays a key role in Italian business culture. Invitations to lunch and dinner are to be expected when doing business there. At such occasions a excellent exclusive group will usually be present. distributively attendee will have a particular interest in your visit. If you plan to host a meal, ask the most senior Italian finish off who you should invite. Dining does have certain protocol in Italy.However, do not place too much(prenominal) emphasis on this as more time would be spent worrying about etiquette mistakes than enjoying the experience. Major etiquette tips are that the most honoured guest sits at the middle of the table or on the right of the host the host always pays pass dishes to the left keep your knife in the right hand and fork in the left and do not state phone calls at the table. Doing Business Meeting and Negotiations Italians prefer to do busine ss with someone they know. When doing business in Italy, use contacts and networks to introduce you before proceeding to serve up meetings.To arrange a meeting write, in Italian, first. Follow this up with a phone call, fax or e-mail. The best time for meetings is between 10 11 a. m. and after 3 p. m. Avoid August as most businesses will run on skeleton staff due to holidays. Negotiations can be slow. Demonstrating a sense of urgency is seen as a sign of weakness. At the beginning of a meeting avoid business and concentrate on some small talk. Topics of discussion could include Italian culture, food, wine and football (soccer). Italians will take away proposals and analyse them carefully. Be sure to offer as much information as possible in written form for them to take away.A known Italian tactic is to dramatically change demands at the eleventh hour to unsettle or test the flexibility of their counterparts. Remain firm. Location Southern Europe, bordering Austria 430 km, France 4 88 km, Holy See (Vatican City) 3. 2 km, San Marino 39 km, Slovenia 232 km, Switzerland 740 km Capital capital of Italy Climate predominantly Mediterranean Alpine in far north hot, dry in south Population 58,057,477 (July 2004 est. ) Ethnic Make-up Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south)Religions predominately Roman Catholic with mature Protestant and Jewish communities and a growing Muslim immigrant community Government republic The Italian Language Italian is the official language of Italy, and 93% of population are native Italian speakers. Around 50% of population speak a regional dialect as mother tongue. Many dialects are mutually unintelligible and thus considered by linguists as separate languages, but are not formally recognised. Friulian, one of these dialects, is spoken by 600,000 people in the north east of Italy, which is 1% of the entire population.Other northern minori ty languages include Ladin, Slovene, German, which enjoys equal cognition with Italian in the province of Alto-Adige, and French, which is legally recognised in the Alpine region of the Val dAosta. Albanian is spoken by 0. 2% of the population, mainly in the gray part of Italy, as too are Croatian and Greek. Catalan is spoken in one city, Alghero, on the island of Sardinia, by around 0. 07% of the population. On the rest of the island, Sardinian is spoken by over 1m, which comes to 1. 7% of the Italian population.
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
Chapter 1Q1. What atomic number 18 the differences between outside(a), global, and multi domestic companies?Multilanded estateal bon ton An organization with multi verdant affiliates, distributively of which formulates its get business strategy establish on perceived market differences.Global company An organization that attempts to standardize and integrate operations worldwide in altogether functional areas.Inter dry landal company Either a global or a multi domestic companyQ2. Give examples to show how an world(prenominal) business manager dexterity manipulate genius of the controllable forces in answer to a change in the uncontrollable forces.Uncontrollable forces(External forces) Physical/political/Socio pagan/Competitive/Economic/Socioeconomic/ pervasive/Financial/LegalManager provide lobby for a changing a law and promoting a untested ingathering which requires changes in a cultural attitude.Q3. A body politic whose GNI is smaller than the sales volume of a glo bal firm is in no position to enforce its wishes on the local adjunct of that firm. True or False? Explain.False.GNI is different from sales volume in terms of a calculation method. GNI is a measure of value added, not sales. And each subsidiary of global firms is to a fault a local company that must comply with law in the expanse where it is located.Q4. Discuss the forces that are leading supra dry landal firms to the globalization of their sourcing, production, and marketing.5 major forces Political, Technological, Market, Cost, and Competitive Followings are the five change-based drivers that are leading world(prenominal) firms to globalize their operations, with an example for each kind (1)political-preferential work agreements, (2)technological-advances in communications technology, (3)market-global firms become global customers, (4)monetary value-globalization of product line and production helps reduce costs by achieving economies of scale, and (5)competitive-firms are defending their home markets from exotic competitors by outset appearance the inappropriate competitors markets.Q5. Business is business, and every firm has to produce and market its give the gatedids. why, then, might managers be unable to apply the techniques and concepts they select learned in their take in outlandish to otherwise areas of the world?Despite firms hurl knowledges and skills for business in own countrified, they might not be successful in orthogonal countries that have their own cultures and propensitys of consumption. Good example for this question is Wal-mart in Korea. The multinational environmental defined as the interactions (1)between the domestic environmental forces and the foreign environmental forces and (2)between the foreign environmental forces of 2 countries when an affiliate in one country does business with customers in other.Q6. What do you believe agnises foreign business activities more complex than purely domestic ones?To set out a decision in foreign country is more difficult than home country. They not only must dash into account the domestic forces bot in any case must evaluate the influence of 10 foreign national environments.Q7. Discuss about possible conflicts between host governments and foreign-owned companies.I am the opinion that restrictions for subsidiaries of foreign companies are sensitive problems. For example, If a certain(a) nation prohibits funding for foreign companies, conflicts result increase. And complains of foreign companies go forth besides increase. On the other hands, If a certain nation is open to the funding for foreign companies, at that place will be some troubles with foreign companies about taxes and incentives.Q8. Why, in your opinion, do the authors regard the use of the self-reference step as probably the biggest cause of international business blunders? Can you think of an example?If I do business in overseas, I dont know everything exactly concerning about foreign countrys culture, form _or_ system of government, social situations, economy, and trends. So, doing business well in foreign country is very difficult. Self-reference criterion promoter unconscious reference to ones own cultural values when judging behaviors of others in a new and different environment. Managers unfamiliarity with other cultures, to make matters worse, some managers will ascribe to others their own preferences and reactions. For example, selling bangs by self-reference criterion business in Muslim countries will be failed.Q9. You have decided to take a job in your hometown after graduation. Why should you study international business?Owing to globalization trends in the worlds, and eventance of relationship between domestic and foreign country, we have to study hard international business. I will take a job in home country. plainly I might have opport unit of measurementies for business in overseas and meeting foreign buyers. Thus, to obtain other coun tries values, cultures, policies, and trends by studying international business is very important for me.Q10. Although forces in the foreign environment are the same as those in the domestic environment, they operate differently. Why is this so?I think that domestic environmental and foreign environmental are different in terms of domestic and foreigns culture, and international environmental. When comparing with domestic environmental, operating company in the foreign country has different environments such as companys market share, foreigners own culture, and growth in global. And domestic environmental is likewise originated in home countrys culture which effect on the companies.Q11. What examples of globalization can you identify within your community? How would you classify each of these examples(e.g., international investment, international peck)? International investment I could feel the globalization by watching the Coka-Cola in every super market. International look at FTA(Korea and Chile) is a unafraid example for international trade. This free trade agreements is mutually profitable for each nations Q12. Why is there opposition to globalization of trade and integration of the worlds economy? Please assess the major parameters for and against such globalization efforts.I think that this argument against globalization is originated by the different peoples valules and concepts. This argument can be examined by three primary ones (1) that globalization has produced uneven results crosswise nations and people (2) that globalization has had deleterious effects on lying-in and labor standards (3) that globalization has contributed to a decline in environmental and health conditions.Chapter 2Q1. How large and important a role do small and mediumsize enterprises play in generating export sales?The proportion of generating export sales from the SMEs in the U.S.A increased constantly. According to the tradeer Data Base in the text book, Of total expor ters, 218,382 were SMEs(small and medium-size enterprises). It is 97 pct of all U.S.A exporters.Q2. How has trade in merchandise and go changed over the past decade? What have been the major trends? How might this information be of value to a manager?Although the economic growth of global has slowdowned in the 2000, the absolute value of their merchandise exports increased, the proportion of exports coming from the regions of Latin America, Africa, and Middle East decreased between 1980 and 2004. The largest exporters and importers of merchandise are generally developed countries.The results of services exports are similar with merchandise exports. Regionalization of trade is increasing more and more. It is accounted for over 70 percent by 2005. Further, South and East Asias share of the worlds manufacturing value added has nearly quadrupled since 1980. From this information the managers may be prepared for the increased competition from exports to their own domestic markets.Q3. Th e greater part of international trade consists of an exchange of raw materials from developing nations for manufactured healthys from developed nations. True? or false? Explain.False. This is correct partially. much than half the exports from developing nations go to developed countries. Also, over 70% of exports from developed economies go to other industrialized nationsQ4. The volume of exports has increased, but the ranking of U.S. business partners in order of importance remains the same year after year. True or false? Of what use in this information to a manager?False. Of the go on 15 nations, 8 have remained on the list over the years listed, including Canada, Mexico, Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Brazil. However, each nations ranking has changed over time, and some new nations have been added to replace other nations that have become relatively less important as trade partners.Q5. What is the value of analyzing foreign trade data? For example, what should the multiply in real terms of exports in less than 35 years indicate to managers?The analysis information would be helpful to anyone just starting to essay outside the home market for new business opportunities by studying the general growth and direction of trade and analyzing major trading partners.Q6. Knowing that a nation is a major trading partner of another signifies what to a marketing analyst? on that point are alterments to focusing attention on a nation that is already a sizable purchaser of another country The business climate in the importing nation is relatively favorable trade and import regulations are not insurmountable There should be no strong cultural objections to buying that nations good Satisfactory point facilities have already been establishedQ7. What are the different components of foreign investment? Why has the distinction between them begun to blur in recent years?It can be divided into two components First is portfolio investment and sec ond is direct investment. 1. Portfolio investment The purchase of stocks and bonds to obtain a return on the funds invested. 2. luff investment The purchase of sufficient stock in a firm to obtain significant steering control. Because of globalization in recent years, the distinction beetween them begun to blur.Q8. How has the take aim and direction of FDI changed over the past decade, twain overall and in terms of annual outflows and inflows? Why would this information be of relevance to managers?Annual FDI outflows hit a historical high in 2000-$1,201 billion. However, By 2002, the total was only $647 billion, only about 54 percent of the 2000figure because of a subsequent decline in the overall level of annual FDI flows. Outflows significantly increased to $730 billion by 2004. The vast proportion of outward FDI, over 87 percent, originates from the developed countries.This data has been associated with mergers, acquisitions purchasing of companies in other nations. In ann ual inflows case, developed countries have been alse occupying over 70 percent of annual FDI investments. Recently for managers, important issues related to inflows are trend that proportion of Asian FDI that has been directed to China and its territories. Their combined proportion of Asian FDI grew from 52.4 percent during 1985-1995 to 75 percent in 2004.Q9. Why has FDI historically followed foreign trade? What is it about the new international business environment that is causing this path to market expansion to change?Reason is that engaging in foreign trade is typically less costly and less risky than making a direct investment into foreign markets. Also, management can expand the business in small increments rather than through the considerably greater amounts of investment and market size that a foreign production facility requires. Generally, because the local market would not be large enough to realize local production by all the firms exporting to it, the situation would b ecome one of seeing who could begin manufacturing there first.Q10. Why has most foreign direct investment gone into acquiring existing companies rather than establishing new ones?1) Corporate restructuring in the United States caused management to ordain on the market businesses or other assets. 2) Foreign companies trusted to gain rapid access in the United States to advanced technology, especially in computers and communications 3) Management of foreign firms felt that entrance into the large and prosperous American market could be more successful 4) Increased international competitive pressures also could be reasons for this question.Q11. What are the main reasons that a firm might enter into foreign markets?First reason is to increase their profits and sales (Enter new markets / book greater profits / Test market) Second is to cherish markets, profits, and sales (cherish domestic market / Attack in competitors home market / Protect foreign markets / Guarantee supply of raw ma terials / Acquire technology and management know-how / geographic diversification / Satisfy managements desire for expansion)Q12. What are in-bond plants? Why might they be an attractive alternative for a manufacturing company?In-bond plants, often called maquiladoras, is production facilities in Mexico that temporarily import raw materials, components, or parts duty-free to be manufactured, processed, or assembled with less expensive local labor, after which the finished or semifinished product is exported. Because the Mexican government permitted duty-free importation of parts and materials from the the States within the in-bond plant, provided that the finished products were re-exported.Q13. How can a firm protect its domestic market by investing overseas?When companies face competitor which has lower price profit in domestic, companies can break this difficult situation by using advantages of overseas investments.(cheap labor cost, raw material, and etc.)Q14. What are the seve n dimensions along which management can globalize? How is it possible for a firm to be multidomesic on one dimension of globalization and global on another?There are at least seven dimensions 1) product, 2) market, 3) promotion, 4) where value is added to the product, 5) competitive strategy, 6) use of non-home-country personnel, and 7) extent of global ownership in the firm. The possibilities range from zero standardization(multidomestic) to standardization along all seven dimensions(completely global). The challengefor company managers is to determine how far the firm should go with each one.Chapter 3Q1. Describe mercantilism, and explain why mercantilism has been argued to be a poor approach to use in order to promote economic development and prosperity.Mercantilism is an economic system (Europe in 18th century) to increase a nations wealth by government regulation of all of the nations commercial interests. Mercantilism that stressed governments promotion of limitation of impor ts from other nations and internal economies in order to improve tax revenues popular during 17th and 18th centuries in Europe. The Paradox of Mercantilism is to be rich a country needed to have a lot of poor people.Mercantilism failed to understand the notions of absolute advantage and relative advantage and the benefits of trade. For instance, Portugal was a far more effectual producer of wine than England, while in England it was relatively cheaper to produce cloth. Thus if Portugal specialized in wine and England in cloth, both(prenominal) states would end up erupt off if they traded. This is an example of the reciprocal benefits of trade callable to a comparative advantage. In modern economic theory, trade is not a zero-sum game of competition, because both sides can benefit.Q2.a. Explain Adam Smiths theory of absolute advantage.The ability of a country, individual, company or region to produce a good or service at a lower cost per unit than the cost at which any other en tity produces that good or service. Entities with absolute advantages can produce something using a smaller number of inputs than another party producing the same product. As such, absolute advantage can reduce costs and advertize profits.b. How does Ricardos theory of comparative advantage differ from the theory of absolute advantage?Absolute advantage and comparative advantage are two grassroots concepts to international trade. Under absolute advantage, one country can produce more output per unit of productive input than another. With comparative advantage, if one country has an absolute (dis)advantage in every type of output, the other might benefit from specializing in and exporting those products, if any exist.A country has an absolute advantage economically over another, in a particular good, when it can produce that good at a lower cost. Using the same input of resources a country with an absolute advantage will have greater output. Assuming this one good is the only item in the market, beneficial trade is impossible. An absolute advantage is one where trade is not mutually beneficial, as opposed to a comparative advantage where trade is mutually beneficial.A country has a comparative advantage in the production of a good if it can produce that good at a lower opportunity cost relative to another country. The theory of comparative advantage explains why it can be beneficial for two parties (countries, regions, individuals and so on) to trade if one has a lower relative cost of producing some good. What matters is not the absolute cost of production but the opportunity cost, which measures how much production of one good, is reduced to produce one more unit of the other good.c. Using the example from the chapter, explain why no gains from specialization exist(and thus why two countries could not trade in a modality that benefits each) if there is no pattern of comparative advantage(if the ratios of soybeans to cloth production are the same in the two countries).China has an absolute advantage in producing both soybeans and cloth. If there is a trade between 2 countries according to comparative advantage theory, United States will have 4 tons of soybeans and 5 bolts of cloth. On the other hand, China will have 4 tons of soybeans and 5 bolts of cloth. Therefore, china will have a loss for their total soybeans compared withbefore trading the products.Q3. Consider the case in which a country does not have a comparative advantage in the production of a product, such as apples, because its soils or climate are not appropriate. Explain who would be likely to favor free trade, and who would be likely to oppose free trade, in this product. choose to free trade countries which has a comparative advantage in production of a product, such as apples. Opposite to free trade countries which has a comparative disadvantage in production of a product, such as apples.Q4. What is the relationship between the Heckscher-Ohlin factor endowment the ory and the theories in question 2?It builds on David Ricardos theory of comparative advantage by predicting patterns of commerce and production based on the factor endowments of a trading region. The model essentially says that countries will export products that utilize their abundant and cheap factors of production and import products that utilize the countries scarce factors.Q5. Why were Leontiefs empirical results considered to be paradoxical?In 1954, Leontief assemble that the U.S. (the most capital-abundant country in the world by any criteria) exported labor-intensive commodities and imported capital-intensive commodities, in contradiction with Heckscher-Ohlin theory.Q6. Why does most of the worlds international trade take place between economies that are similar in their level of economic development?According to the Linders demand-oriented theory, The reason is 1) income levels of both nations 2) coincide demand. Because an entrepreneur will produce goods to meet demand, the kinds of products manufactured reflect the countrys level of income per capital. Goods produced for domesticconsumption will eventually be exported, due to similarity of income levels and therefore demand in other countries.Q7. Name some products that you believe have passed through the four stages of the international product life cycle.Telegraphy. I read recently how Western Union sent the last telex / telegram in 2006, so that definitely qualifies to decline. You can literally see how this grow based upon rail and cable laying and didnt start in all places on earth (let alone a single country) simultaneously and act to be a viable business in some countries long after voice, fax, then email and SMS replaced such.Q8. What factors increase the cost of trading goods and services across borders? Can these costs be reduced? How?I think that import/export tariffs, subsidies, expensive transaction costs, and etc are factors which increase the cost of trading goods and services ac ross borders. This factors which occur costs can be reduced by free trade agreements(FTA) or regional trade agreements such as NAFTA, EU. It will reduce unnecessary costs and encourage trading among nations.Q9. It seems that free, unrestricted international trade, in which each nation produces and exports products for which it has a comparative advantage, will alter everyone to have a higher level of living. Why, then, does every country have import duty restrictions?Because many nation did not produce other nations product and the nation has lower qualities or a lot of cost better than other nations product. In case that many nation needs other nations product. At the trading among the nations, there are a lot of problems. For example, economical, historical problems, political and so on. If a nation has infant constancy.For example, farming which is needed to develop for domestic market, The nation can be protect the industry from competitive companies by having import duty rest rictions. And then, their nations infrastructure can be collapse. Forfair competition, nation have to improve the balance of the trading.Q10. We certainly need defense industries, and we must protect them from import competition by placing restrictions on competitive imports. True or false? Is there an alternative to trade restrictions that might make more economic whizz?I think that it may be not true. All is not certainly, If nations competitive industry help income of nation that select and improve nations industry. A nation trading needs of basic infrastructure among the nations. And then, About tariff of the trading remove or a small(a) portion levy.Q11. Suppose that a country negotiates an agreement with its trade partners to restrict its imports through voluntary export restrictions(VERs). What impacts might be expected from implementing such VERs?VER(Voluntary Export Restriction) means that exporting nation restricted quantities of export and list of article. In case that at nations exporting product bare or insufficiency in a given situation. In a surplus situation, nation should be restricted for their quantities. In a insufficiency situation, nation make some increasing demand and higher cost.Q12. Workers are paid $20 an hour in the United States but only $4 in Taiwan. Of course we cant compete. We need to protect our jobs from cheap foreign labor. What are some possible problems with this statement?In a given situation, cheaper product come round in our nation. At the same time, our nations job of labor disappeared. LDC(Lower Develope Country) has cheaper wage that supply more profi better than industrialization nation. But Many industrialization nation has higher wage and lower productivity. Production costs may actually be higher in a low-wage.Q13. There are two general classifications of import duties tariff and non-tariff barriers. a. Describe the various types of tariff barriers.An ad valorem tariff is a set percentage of the value of the good that is being imported. Sometimes these are problematic, as when the international price of a good falls, so does the tariff, and domestic industries become more vulnerable to competition. Conversely, when the price of a good rises on the international market so does the tariff, but a country is often less interested in protection when the price is higher.A specific tariff, is a tariff of a specific amount of money that does not vary with the price of the good. These tariffs are vulnerable to changes in the market or inflation unless updated periodically.A revenue tariff is a set of rates designed primarily to raise money for the government. A tariff on coffee imports imposed by countries where coffee cannot be grown, for example raises a steady flow of revenue.A protective tariff is intended to artificially inflate prices of imports and protect domestic industries from foreign competition (see also effective rate of protection,) especially from competitors whose host nations allow them to operate under conditions that are illegal in the saved nation, or who subsidize their exports.b. What are some of the nontariff barriers?Non-tariff barriers may also be in the form of product standards and technical regulations, which may dictate particular manufacturing guidelines or product specifications. If products do not meet the given requirements, they will face an import ban. Examples of this sort are the European Union restrictions on genetically-modified organisms or beef treated with growth hormones.Q14. A firm entering the market first will soon dominate it, and the large market share it acquires will enable it to obtain the benefits of economies of scale. True or false? Remember that there are at least two studies showing that first movers held large market shares.True. First-mover advantage theory is economic and strategic advantage gained by being the first company to enter an industry. However, If only the firm possess core strategies such as superior technology, knowledge about local market, and other advantages over indigenous firms. It could be hardship that you awkwardly enter the market for the first mover without these strategies.This outcome will bring about more advantage opportunities to the second mover who has been indirectly experienced the failure of first mover. It is never true that only the first mover strategy is the best theory.Q15. According to theories presented in this chapter, why do companies engage in foreign direct investment?For defensive reason, Refer to the international product life cycle theory. International investement as well as international trade. Refer to the eclectic theory of international production, the company must have location and ownership advantages to invest in a foreign plant. It will invest where it is most profitable in internalize. It is monopolistic advantage.Chapter 4Q1. What are some reasons that business people should be aware of important international institutions?Internat ional institutions have resolved conflicts among nations. It is very important to make business internationally. International institutions has also valuable data which apply to business.Q2. Even though the UN is best known for peace keeping missions, it has many agencies involved in activities affecting business. In your judgement, do these activities justify support for the UN? Would it be better if the activities of these agencies were done by private entities such as trade groups?The UN has helped some countries which need support to make their industry by funding and teaching knowledges. This activities justify support for the UNbecause UN has a number of informations which is originated by connections of other counties.Q3. How did the WTO come into existence? What purpose does it serve? Would isobilateral trading agreements work better than the multilateral WTO approach?The Bretton Woods Conference of 1944 proposed the creation of an International shell out Organization (ITO ) to establish rules and regulations for trade between countries. The ITO charter was agree at the UN Conference on Trade and Employment in Havana in March 1948, but was blocked by the U.S. Senate (WTO, 2004b).Some historians have argued that the failure may have resulted from fears within the American business community that the International Trade Organization could be used to regulate, rather than liberate, big business (Lisa Wilkins, 1997 Helen Milner 1993). scarcely one element of the ITO survived the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Seven rounds of negotiations occurred under GATT before the eighth round the Uruguay Round concluded in 1995 with the psychiatric hospital of the WTO as the GATTs replacement. The GATT principles and agreements were adopted by the WTO, which was charged with administering and extending them. Unlike the GATT, the WTO has a substantial institutional structure.I think that the multilateral trading agreements is better than bilateral t rading agreements because there will be no discrimination to all WTO members.Q4. What are the four main organs of the EU, and what is the purpose of each?1. European fantan to pass European laws, voice of the European people in EU 2. Council of European Union policy setting, voice of the member states, where decisions on foreign policy and security issues are made 3. European Commission represents the interest of Europe as a whole, runs the day to day operations of EU 4. European chat up of Justice court that decides cases related to EU policiesQ5. What is the impact of the EU on business?The European Union has had a significant influence on international trade, especially in respect of the countries that are member states in the Union. Internally, trading between the member states within the European Union has become less restrictive, because of the laws and regulations passed. Globally, the European Union has created a power that can compete internationally with superpowers such as the United States.Q6. The U.S. Congress approved the North American Free Trade Agreement despite strong opposition from organized labor. Why would labor have opposed NAFTA?I think a reason why is that they (organized labor) want to obtain working visa in North America.Q7. What is the importance of the OECD for business?OECD promotes economic expansion and provides a number of economic information/researches which can support and help its country members.Q8. Mercosurs major trading partner is the EU rather than the United States. Why might this be the case?Mercosur is based on the EU and can trade several countries in the EU.Q9. How might a small business person in Des Moines, Iowa, who is exporting agricultural products attend useful the international institutions and agreements that this chapter describes?1. To find out which countries is available for a business person to export their productions. 2. To protect their products from other foreign competitors.
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
This poem is written to tell us the fact that no matter how much we think we can control the directions of career, but as clock passes, we will be convinced to accept our destiny. This is illustrated through an old woman who tries to arrange her life and the things around her to the way she wanted but it all turns push through that she has little control over them and mostly are g one as years go by.This poem is a metrical verse of 4 sestets. The counterbalance two sestets shows the disappointment of the old woman despite how badly she arranges and wants her husband or children to stay with her but her love is now a flicker or memory and no child or man, and where I live is what remains when men and children go. In the third sestet then, shows how the old woman solace herself that actually not all is lost and she owns more than residue of lives that she has marked and altered.That she is able to stop the mysterious force of time and control the flowers from wilting by keeping f lowers fed and take care of her silver by polishing them. In the last sestet, however, she finally realizes all these do not matter anymore as she ages and feels her years grow less and less. Time, which she once feared that took away many things she cherished does not bother her as before because she knows that time in the end is going to take her life away too. It is also time, that made her understand the significance of what previously happened and she has to learn to accept. her own life she places in the vase Like the flowers she arranges, her life is arranged by time too.This poem is written in a series of run on lines. Warns time from too much touching her possessions/By keeping flowers fed, by polishing/ Her fine old silver gives a dragging, monotonous and controlled feeling which probably illustrates how time reduces the life of the old woman and taking things away from her slowly and naturally. The run on lines also give a really repetitive effect that time will cont inually alter ones life.Jennings uses very domestic and ordinary language cool walls of the houseflowers in a vasefine old silver to present to us that this is very typical of life and we may experience the disappointment of the old woman too.
Monday, May 20, 2019
keen market is the market for leading and acceptance of long suit and long term cash in hand. The demand for long-term funds comes from industry, trade, agriculture and government (central and state). The supply for funds comes from individual savers, incorporate savings, banks, insurance companies, specialized financial institutions and government.*SIGNIFICANCE A sound and efficient not bad(p) market is extremely vital for the stinting outgrowth of a nation. So, the signifi assholece of capital market has increased. The adjacent points clearly bring out the role and significance of capital market in India.i)CAPITAL FORMATION Capital market encourages capital formation as it ensures speedy economic development. The process of capital formation includes accruement of saving effective mobilization of these savings for productive investment. Thus three distinctive inter-related activities i.e. collection of savings, mobilisation of savings and investment lead to capital f ormation in the country. The volume of capital formation account s on the efficiency and intensity with which these activities are carried on.ii) ECONOMIC GROWTH Capital market plays a vital role in the growth and development of an economy by channelising funds in developmental and productive investments. The financial intermediaries channel funds into those investments that are more important for economic development.iii) INDUSTRIAL growing Capital market promotes industrial development and motivates industrial entrepreneurship. It offer ups cheap, adequate and diversified funds for industrial purposes much(prenominal) as expansion, modernisation, technological upgradation, establishment of new units, etc. It also provides run like provision of underwriting facilities, federation in equity capital, credit-rating, consultancy services, etc.vi) MODERNISATION AND REHABILITATION OF INDUSTRIES Capital markets also contribute towards modernisation and reformation of industries . Developmental financial institutions like IDBI, IFCI, ICICI,etc provide finance to industries to adopt modern techniques and new upgraded machinery. They also embark in the equity capital of industries.v) RIVIVAL OF SICK UNITS Commercial and financial institutions provide adequate funds to operable sick unit to overcome their industrial sickness. Bank and FIs may also write off a part of the loan or re-schedule the loan to offer payment flexibility to weak units.vi) TECHNICAL assistance The financial intermediaries in the capital market stimulate industrial entrepreneurship by providing technical and advisory services like preparation of feasibility reports, identifying growth potential, and training entrepreneurs in project management. This promotes industrial investment and leads to economic development.vii) DEVELOPMENT OF BACKWARD AREAS Capital markets provide funds for projects in backward area and facilitate their economic development. Long-term funds are also provide d for development projects in backward / rural areas.viii) EMPLOYMENT genesis Capital markets provide Direct Employment in capital market related activities like monetary fund markets, banks and financial institutions. In point Employment is provided in all the sectors of the economy through various funds disbursed for developmental projects.ix) FOREIGN CAPITAL Capital markets make it possible to generate foreign capital by enabling Indian firms to raise capital from overseas market through bonds and other securities. Such foreign step in funds have a great impact on the economic development of the nation. Moreover, foreign direct investments (FDIs) also bring in foreign capital as well as foreign engineering that leads to greater economic development.x) DEVELOPMENT OF STOCK MARKETS Capital markets lead to development of ocellus markets by supporting(a) investors to invest in shares and debentures and to trade in stocks. FIIs are also allowed to deal in Indian stock exchan ge.xi) FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS Financial institutions play a major role in capital markets. They provide medium / long term loan to industrial and other sectors and also undertake project feasibility studies and surveys. They refinance commercial banks and rediscount their bills of exchange. They provide merchant banking services. They subscribe to equity capital of the firms.xii) INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY Capital markets provide various alternative sources of investment to the people. People can invest in shares and debentures of public companies and earn acceptable returns.xiii) INVESTMENT IN INDUSTRIAL SECURITIES Secondary market in securities encourage investors to invest in industrial securities by providing facilities for continuous, regular and ready buying and selling of these securities. This facilitates industries to raise substantial funds from various sectors of the economy.xiv) authorized GUIDE TO PERFORMANCE Capital market serves as a reliable guide to the performan ce of corporate institutions. It values companies accurately and thus promotes efficiency. This leads to efficient resource allocation and economic development.*CONCLUSION Thus we can say that capital markets play a crucial role in the economic development of a nation. A sound and efficient capital market is one of the most instrumental factors in the development of a nation.
Sunday, May 19, 2019
To define agri gloss is not easy because culture means different things to different people. Hence there many definitions of culture as there be many different cultures in the World. Anthropologists define culture as loving behavior of human beings. To others dance, music, theatre, artif bends and bearing constitute culture. On the other hand, work is a style characteristic of the social elite and is mainly associated with social association and is highly dynamic. Hence spirt should be in authorized mode for instance a garment. mood, style, vogue or even mode ar used interchangeably to refer to a preferred type of dress, behaviour, adornment or a way of life at a given time span. In broadest terms style usu exclusivelyy refers to conventions which are generally accepted by a society or by any culture or even a subculture. expressive style like mode often stresses the adherence to standards and elegance and should be socially accepted. For instance miniskirts were the mode in the late sixties. Vogue is applied to style or musical mode that prevails widely just now often suggests anxious but short lived acceptance (The Ameri whoremonger heritage 2003).Wilson, further states that fashion is always in a continual change and sets the terms for all sartorial behaviour (Wilson 2003). The importance of fashion can neer be overemphasized in the current dry land since fashion now is always around us from media to our passing(a) lives in clothing and even automobile sector. Let it be whitely noted that fashion is for esthetic as well as societal class, elegance and modesty. In the current years fashion has go away a major factor affecting the psychosocial wellbeing of major cultures and subcultures in the world. This influences the life of people both(prenominal) in style and preferences and their economical sphere.The growth of fashion is linked with the development of cities and urban centres in the fourteenth century and the growing sophistication of the courts. But it is only in 15th and 16th centuries when people real the culture of fashion and class such that they felt shameful to wear outdated clothes (Wilson 2003). The enthrall of fashion led to increased spending on clothes and a clear cut class differences. The rise of bourgeoisie became so much crucial in the development of fashion and style. The poorest class sure the cheapest clothing with the people in the highest level in class ladder wearing the most big-ticket(prenominal) clothes.With the rise of Industrial revolution came capitalism hence new markets for clothes in fashion and fashion became more and more primary(prenominal) with the circulation of images in mass communication. GENDER AND FASHION In the current raw world, fashion has become the order of the day. Media houses and world class beauty and model centres have been developed all over the world especially in Europe and U. S. A. However, contradictory the past where fashion was associated with f emale, this effort welcomes both genders nowadays. But because of the past skewed interest of ladies in the industry they are still the major players.Nevertheless, nigh every one in the current society setting especially in urban areas appreciates fashion and style and is a product of the same in one way or another. People are more conscious when it comes to fashion and no one is willing to be left behind in the outdated world hence consumption of these fashion products has tremendously risen. Dress is a practical negotiation between the fashion system, the social conditions of everyday life such as class and gender as well as rules or norm governing particular social situations.The outcome of this complex fundamental interaction cannot be cognise in advance precisely because the habitus will improvise and adapt to these conditions. olibanum dress is a personal attempt to orientate ourselves to particular circumstances and thus recognise the morphologic influences of the social world and the individualist on the other (Entwistle 2000) FASHION AND MODERNITY air has kept chiliad with juvenile life. It has followed every step the international world is making and is by itself part and parcel of the globalised world. From brotherhood to South, West to East fashion is enchantn to influence the global ways of life.However, this is bringing about similarity and extinguishing of cultures since fashion and culture are linked and the change of one leads to change of the other. Since fashion is dynamic it follows that the fashion of yester years is different from the fashion of today hence todays fashion is new and can be termed as modern. novel fashion has greatly been affected by the present technological increase and the entrance of new marketing approach. For example, the use of internet has revolutionized this industry.It is not a wonder therefore what is considered modern in London today is even being used the following day in Washington. This has pr omoted customized fashion products to promote what many fashion stars look for in fashion uniqueness and class. Fashion and style industry has in the recent decades been well established with increased sales as many people go for class and fashion. Also, the quality of the products has greatly developed thus fashion has become our way of life. FASHION, SUBCULTURAL & YOUTH STYLES It is important to distinguish between the concept of younker culture and younker subcultures.In general terms youth culture is more homogenous, doing similar things and being treated in the same way playing garbage d testify aspects of differentiation. This idea was much popular with U. S sociologists in early 1960s. In modern youth culture emphasis is more on subcultures. Unlike the 20th c where fashion was highly linked with class, in 21st c the line of demarcation has narrowed and the mode of classification is not only on class lines but across a wide plane of social and cultural identities. Hence the youth even in ghettos are coming up with their modes of fashion.The issue of subcultures within the large framework of culture in a society is a major phenomenon. Hence these subcultures act as the seed bottomland for fashion that is embraced by the larger society. The link between class and identity is far less unembellished in the 20th c, in particular since high fashion is democratised and not longer the prerogative of a small elite. In contemporary culture distinction does not run along class lines just but across a wide plane of social identities. Thus, rather than being only compel from the top, fashion is also bubbling up from the street and youth cultures (Entwistle 2000).The use of style brings across clear identity within the youth and serves to sometimes oppose dominant values within the society. Youth go to solve their problems of culture and fashion in their own unique understandable way hence they act against the main stream fashions of the old. However their fas hions and style are dominantly affected by the media and celebrities entertainment industry. Fashion trends brought in the lead by top musicians come fast and go quickly. These fashions and styles linked with subcultures are known to be different as the youth are dynamic.Therefore the rate of change of any fashion within a subculture is higher than in the dominant cultures. The youth also customise fashions by either adding or removing some parts from the original fashion to create a different identity. And for sure youth have revolutionised the world of fashion and culture, in the contemporary world. Therefore fashion is regarded as a mode of identity by the youth and serves as the avenue through which the youth express themselves. EFFECTS OF FASHION ON CONSUMERISM The round of golf of fashion in the modern times has been found to influence the level of consumerism in the current world.Fashion is fueled by change and conversion. Designers always persuade their customers that the ir new fashions are everything they need. In the next assuage the same designers convince their customers to bade farewell to outdated designs and instead embrace the new trends in their latest collections. Western societys culture of mass consumerism has widely been influenced by the fashion pedal. Sociologist Stella C. (1993) likens fashion cycle with the rolling waves of the sea. As one fashion gains popularity and is outdated another style is gaining momentum and this change our modern culture.Todays fashion is not only placed on the contest of youth, sexuality and historicism, but also previous culture movements and raises fashion reflects its surrounding, its subjects but ultimately itself. FASHION AND CLASS Fashion is known to influence lifestyle and how people relate within the society. However this relationship is both on the individual and societal levels. Fashion is a product of class division since many people want to be seen in a unique way within any given society and societies also show their class differences using fashion hence affecting the culture of present societies.CONCLUSION It is true that fashion and culture are highly interlinked. A culture that appreciates fashion is a culture that is dynamic and fasten to follow where its fashion leads it to. Modern culture is hinged on the fashion of each passing day and unlike the past psychosocial behaviour is influenced by fashion on a larger scale. Youth subcultures promote their own form of fashion which may be interlinked with fashions within the larger sphere of culture. These fashions serve to show their intractable identity.The cycle of fashion has seen unnecessary changes of fashion due to designers who look forward to make profits and are out to change fashions as quickly as practicably possible. Hence the world is supposed to be aware of these uncalled changes in fashions. Unethical issues are also related to fashion and culture. Therefore, some people see it like their religious and spiritual beliefs are affected by fashion. However on a global perspective fashion has promoted the entrance of more products in the world market leading to increased competitiveness. Modern global culture is a mirror of fashion and design.REFERENCES Bruzzi Stella, and Patricia Gibson, 2000, Fashion Cultures Theories, Explorations, and Analysis. London New York Routledge. Craik, Jennifer, 1993, The Face of Fashion Cultural Studies in Fashion. London New York Routledge. Entwistle, J. 2000, The Fashioned Body Fashion, Dress and Modern Social Theory. Cambridge edict Press. Malossi, G. 2000, Material Man Masculinity, Sexuality, Style. New York H. N. Abrams. The American Heritage, 2003, Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition by Houghton Mifflin Company. U. S. A.
Saturday, May 18, 2019
89War had broken break through in St. Peters Square.The piazza had exploded into a frenzy of aggression. Media trucks skidded into place like assault vehicles claiming beachheads. Reporters unfurled high-tech electronics like soldiers arming for battle. All around the boundary line of the square, networks jockeyed for position as they raced to erect the spic-and-spanest weapon in media wars flat-screen displays.Flat-screen displays were marvelous video screens that could be assembled on ex geniusrate of trucks or portable scaffolding. The screens served as a kind of billboard advertisement for the network, broadcasting that networks coerage and bodied logo like a drive-in movie. If a screen were well-situated in front of the action, for congresswo troops a competing network could not shoot the stratum with out including an advertisement for their competitor.The square was quickly becoming not only a multimedia extravaganza, just now a frenzied habitual vigil. Onlookers poured in from all directions. give space in the usually limitless square was fast becoming a valuable commodity. pot clustered around the towering flat-screen displays, listening to live reports in stunned excitement.Only a hundred yards away, internal the thick walls of St. Peters Basilica, the world was serene. Lieutenant Chartrand and deuce-ace other guards moved through the darkness. Wearing their infrared emission goggles, they fanned out across the nave, golf strokeing their detectors onward them. The search of Vatican Citys public access countrys so furthermost had yielded nothing.Better remove your goggles up here, the senior guard said.Chartrand was already doing it. They were nearing the Niche of the Palliums the sunken area in the center of the basilica. It was lighten by ninety-nine vegetable oil lamps, and the amplified infrared would save seared their eye.Chartrand enjoyed macrocosm out of the heavy goggles, and he stretched his neck as they desc containe d into the sunken niche to scan the area. The room was attractive golden and glowing. He had not been megabucks here in time.It make up mavens mindmed every day since Chartrand had arrived in Vatican City he had learned nigh saucy Vatican mystery. These oil lamps were maven of them. at that place were exactly ninety-nine lamps burning at all times. It was tradition. The clergy vigilantly refilled the lamps with sacred oils such that no lamp ever burned out. It was said they would burn until the sack of time.Or at least until midnight, Chartrand thought, feeling his mouth go dry over again.Chartrand swung his detector over the oil lamps. Nothing hidden in here. He was not surprised the canister, according to the video feed, was hidden in a dark area.As he moved across the niche, he came to a bulkhead grate practical application a hole in the floor. The hole led to a steep and narrow stairway that went forthwith down. He had heard stories about what lay down there. Thank fully, they would not have to descend. Rochers orders were clear. Search only the public access areas ignore the white z bingles.Whats that smell? he asked, turning away from the grate. The niche smelled intoxicatingly sweet.Fumes from the lamps, one of them replied.Chartrand was surprised. Smells more like cologne than kerosene.Its not kerosene. These lamps are close to the papal altar, so they take a special, ambiental mixture ethanol, sugar, scarcelyane, and perfume.Butane? Chartrand eyed the lamps uneasily.The guard nodded. Dont spill any. Smells like heaven, but burns like sanatorium.The guards had comp permited hard-hitting the Niche of the Palliums and were moving across the basilica again when their walkie-talkies went eat up.It was an update. The guards listened in shock.Apparently there were troubling new developments, which could not be shared on-air, but the camerlegno had decided to break tradition and enter conclave to lot the cardinals. Never before in history h ad this been done. Then again, Chartrand realized, never before in history had the Vatican been academic session on what amounted to some sort of neoteric nuclear warhead.Chartrand mat comforted to k straightaway the camerlegno was taking control. The camerlegno was the person inside Vatican City for whom Chartrand held the most respect. Some of the guards thought of the camerlegno as a beato a religious zealot whose get along of God bordered on obsession but even they agreed when it came to fighting the enemies of God, the camerlegno was the one part who would stand up and play hardball.The Swiss Guards had seen a lot of the camerlegno this week in preparation for conclave, and everyone had commented that the man seemed a bit rough around the edges, his verdant eye a bit more desirous than usual. Not surprisingly, they had all commented not only was the camerlegno responsible for planning the sacred conclave, but he had to do it straightaway on the heels of the loss of his mentor, the Pope.Chartrand had only been at the Vatican a few months when he heard the story of the bomb that blew up the camerlegnos mother before the kids very eyes. A bomb in perform service and now its happening all over again. Sadly, the authorities never caught the bastards who planted the bomb probably some anti-Christian scorn group they said, and the case faded away. No wonder the camerlegno despised apathy.A couple months anchor, on a peaceful afternoon inside Vatican City, Chartrand had bumped into the camerlegno coming across the grounds. The camerlegno had apparently recognized Chartrand as a new guard and invited him to accompany him on a stroll. They had talked about nothing in particular, and the camerlegno make Chartrand feel immediately at home.Father, Chartrand said, may I ask you a strange question?The camerlegno smiled. Only if I may give you a strange answer.Chartrand laughed. I have asked every priest I know, and I unagitated dont understand.What trouble s you? The camerlegno led the way in short, quick strides, his frock kicking out in front of him as he walked. His black, crepe-sole shoes seemed befitting, Chartrand thought, like reflections of the mans essence modern but humble, and showing signs of wear.Chartrand in any casek a deep breath. I dont understand this omnipotent- harmonic thing.The camerlegno smiled. Youve been reading Scripture.I try.You are conf utilize because the Bible describes God as an omnipotent and benevolent deity.Exactly.Omnipotent-benevolent simply means that God is all-powerful and well-meaning.I understand the concept. Its bonnie there seems to be a contradiction.Yes. The contradiction is pain. Mans starvation, war, sicknessExactly Chartrand knew the camerlegno would understand. Terrible things happen in this world. Human tragedy seems like cogent evidence that God could not possibly be both all-powerful and well-meaning. If He hit the hays us and has the power to mixture our situation, He would o bserve our pain, wouldnt He?The camerlegno frowned. Would He?Chartrand felt uneasy. Had he overstepped his bounds? Was this one of those religious questions you just didnt ask? Well if God loves us, and He can protect us, He would have to. It seems He is either omnipotent and uncaring, or benevolent and powerless to help.Do you have children, Lieutenant?Chartrand flushed. No, signore.Imagine you had an eight-year-old son would you love him?Of course.Would you do everything in your power to stay fresh pain in his life?Of course.Would you let him skateboard?Chartrand did a double take. The camerlegno always seemed oddly in touch for a clergyman. Yeah, I guess, Chartrand said. Sure, Id let him skateboard, but Id range him to be careful.So as this childs father, you would give him some basic, good advice and then let him go off and make his own mistakes?I wouldnt run behind him and mollycoddle him if thats what you mean.But what if he fell and shin his knee?He would learn to be more careful.The camerlegno smiled. So although you have the power to interfere and prevent your childs pain, you would choose to show your love by letting him learn his own lessons?Of course. Pain is part of emergence up. Its how we learn.The camerlegno nodded. Exactly.90Langdon and Vittoria observed Piazza Barberini from the shadows of a small alleyway on the western corner. The church was icy them, a hazy cupola emerging from a faint cluster of buildings across the square. The night had brought with it a obtain cool, and Langdon was surprised to find the square deserted. Above them, through open windows, blaring televisions reminded Langdon where everyone had disappeared to. no comment yet from the Vatican Illuminati murders of two cardinals satanic presence in Rome speculation about further infiltrationThe news show had spread like Neros exculpate. Rome sat riveted, as did the rest of the world. Langdon wondered if they would really be able to midriff this runaway train. As he scanned the piazza and waited, Langdon realized that despite the encroachment of modern buildings, the piazza legato looked remarkably elliptical. High above, like some sort of modern shrine to a bygone hero, an enormous neon sign blinked on the roof of a luxurious hotel. Vittoria had already pointed it out to Langdon. The sign seemed spookily befitting.HOTEL BERNINIFive of ten, Vittoria said, cat eyes darting around the square. No sooner had she spoken the words than she grabbed Langdons arm and pulled him stake into the shadows. She motioned into the center of the square.Langdon followed her gaze. When he byword it, he stiffened.Crossing in front of them, beneath a passageway lamp, two dark figures appeared. Both were engrossed, their heads covered with dark mantles, the traditional black covering of Catholic widows. Langdon would have guessed they were women, but he couldnt be sure in the dark. One looked elderly and moved as if in pain, hunched over. The other, larger and stronger, was helping. Give me the shot, Vittoria said.You cant just Fluid as a cat, Vittoria was in and out of his chemise once again. The accelerator glinted in her hand. Then, in absolute silence, as if her feet never touched the cobblestone, she was circling left in the shadows, arching across the square to approach the couple from the rear. Langdon stood transfixed as Vittoria disappeared. Then, swearing to himself, he zip after her.The couple was moving slowly, and it was only a matter of half a minute before Langdon and Vittoria were positioned behind them, closing in from the rear. Vittoria concealed the gun beneath casually crossed gird in front of her, out of sight but accessible in a flash. She seemed to float fast-breaking and faster as the gap lessened, and Langdon battled to keep up. When his shoes scuffed a stone and sent it skittering, Vittoria shot him a oblique glare. But the couple did not seem to hear. They were talking.At thirty feet, Langdon could start to hear voices. No words. only faint murmurings. Beside him, Vittoria moved faster with every step. Her arms loosened before her, the gun starting to gleam out. Twenty feet. The voices were clearer one much louder than the other. Angry. Ranting. Langdon sensed it was the voice of an old woman. Gruff. Androgynous. He strained to hear what she was saying, but another voice cut the night.Mi scusi Vittorias friendly tone lit the square like a torch.Langdon tensed as the cloaked couple stopped short and began to turn. Vittoria kept striding toward them, even faster now, on a collision course. They would have no time to react. Langdon realized his own feet had stopped moving. From behind, he saw Vittorias arms loosening, her hand coming free, the gun swinging forward. Then, over her shoulder, he saw a face, lit now in the street lamp. The panic surged to his legs, and he lunged forward. Vittoria, noVittoria, however, seemed to exist a split certify ahead of him. In a motion as swift as it was casual, Vittorias arms were raised again, the gun disappearing as she clutched herself like a woman on a chilly night. Langdon stumbled to her side, almost colliding with the cloaked couple before them.Buona sera, Vittoria blurted, her voice startled with retreat.Langdon exhaled in relief. Two elderly women stood before them scowling out from beneath their mantles. One was so old she could barely stand. The other was helping her. Both clutched rosaries. They seemed confused by the sudden interruption.Vittoria smiled, although she looked shaken. Dove la chiesa Santa Maria della Vittoria? Where is the Church of The two women motioned in unison to a bulky silhouette of a building on an inclined street from the direction they had come. e la.Grazie, Langdon said, putting his hands on Vittorias shoulders and gently pulling her back. He couldnt believe theyd almost attacked a pair of old ladies.Non si puo entrare, one woman warned. e chiusa temprano.Closed early? Vittoria looked surprised. Perche?Both women explained at once. They sounded irate. Langdon understood only parts of the murmur Italian. Apparently, the women had been inside the church fifteen minutes ago praying for the Vatican in its time of need, when some man had appeared and told them the church was closing early.Hanno conosciuto luomo? Vittoria demanded, sounding tense. Did you know the man?The women shook their heads. The man was a straniero crudo, they explained, and he had forcibly made everyone inside leave, even the young priest and janitor, who said they were calling the police. But the intruder had only laughed, recounting them to be sure the police brought cameras.Cameras? Langdon wondered.The women clucked angrily and called the man a bar-rabo. Then, grumbling, they continued on their way.Bar-rabo? Langdon asked Vittoria. A fell?Vittoria looked suddenly taut. Not quite. Bar-rabo is derogatory wordplay. It means rabo Arab.Langdon felt a shiver and turned toward the outline of the church. As he did, his eyes glimpsed something in the churchs stained-glass windows. The image shot dread through his body.Unaware, Vittoria removed her cell bid and pressed the auto dial. Im warning Olivetti.Speechless, Langdon runed out and touched her arm. With a tremulous hand, he pointed to the church.Vittoria let out a gasp.Inside the building, glowing like evil eyes through the stained-glass windows shone the growing flash of flames.91Langdon and Vittoria dashed to the main entrance of the church of Santa Maria della Vittoria and found the wooden door locked. Vittoria fired three shots from Olivettis semi-automatic into the ancient bolt, and it shattered.The church had no anteroom, so the entirety of the sanctuary spread out in one gasping sweep as Langdon and Vittoria threw open the main door. The scene before them was so unexpected, so bizarre, that Langdon had to close his eyes and reopen them before his mind could take it all in.The church was lavish baroque gilded wal ls and altars. unawares center of the sanctuary, beneath the main cupola, wooden pews had been stacked high and were now ablaze in some sort of epic funeral pyre. A bonfire shooting high into the dome. As Langdons eyes followed the inferno upward, the trustworthy horror of the scene descended like a bird of prey.High smash-up, from the left and right sides of the ceiling, hung two incensor cable lengths lines used for swinging frankincense vessels above the congregation. These lines, however, carried no incensors now. Nor were they swinging. They had been used for something elseSuspended from the cables was a human being. A au naturel(p) man. Each wrist had been connected to an opposing cable, and he had been hoisted almost to the point of being torn apart. His arms were outstretched in a spread-eagle as if he were nailed to some sort of invisible rood-tree hovering within the house of God.Langdon felt paralyzed as he stared upward. A moment later, he witnessed the terminal abomination. The old man was alive, and he raised his head. A pair of terrified eyes gazed down in a silent plea for help. On the mans chest was a scorched emblem. He had been branded. Langdon could not see it clearly, but he had little doubt what the marking said. As the flames climbed higher, lapping at the mans feet, the victim let out a cry of pain, his body trembling.As if ignited by some unseen force, Langdon felt his body suddenly in motion, dashing down the main gangplank toward the conflagration. His lungs filled with smoke as he closed in. Ten feet from the inferno, at a full sprint, Langdon hit a wall of heat. The fight on his face singed, and he fell back, shielding his eyes and landing hard on the stain floor. Staggering upright, he pressed forward again, hands raised in protection.Instantly he knew. The fire was far too hot.Moving back again, he scanned the chapel walls. A heavy tapestry, he thought. If I can somehow smother the But he knew a tapestry was not to be found. This is a baroque chapel, Robert, not some damn German castle Think He forced his eyes back to the suspended man.High above, smoke and flames swirled in the cupola. The incensor cables stretched outward from the mans wrists, rising to the ceiling where they passed through pulleys, and descended again to metal cleats on either side of the church. Langdon looked over at one of the cleats. It was high on the wall, but he knew if he could get to it and loosen one of the lines, the tension would slacken and the man would swing wide of the fire.A sudden surge of flames crackled higher, and Langdon heard a piercing scream from above. The skin on the mans feet was starting to blister. The cardinal was being roasted alive. Langdon fixed his sights on the cleat and ran for it.In the rear of the church, Vittoria clutched the back of a pew, trying to gather her senses. The image overhead was horrid. She forced her eyes away. Do something She wondered where Olivetti was. Had he seen the Hassassin? Had he caught him? Where were they now? Vittoria moved forward to help Langdon, but as she did, a sound stopped her.The greaves of the flames was getting louder by the instant, but a second sound also cut the air. A metal(prenominal) vibration. Nearby. The repetitive pulse seemed to emanate from the end of the pews to her left. It was a stark rattle, like the ringing of a telecommunicate, but stony and hard. She clutched the gun firmly and moved down the row of pews. The sound grew louder. On. Off. A recurrent vibration.As she approached the end of the aisle, she sensed the sound was coming from the floor just around the corner at the end of the pews. As she moved forward, gun outstretched in her right hand, she realized she was also holding something in her left hand her cell phone. In her panic she had forgotten that outside she had used it to dial the air force officer setting off his phones silent vibration feature as a warning. Vittoria raised her phone to her ea r. It was tranquilize ringing. The commander had never answered. Suddenly, with rising fear, Vittoria sensed she knew what was making the sound. She stepped forward, trembling.The entire church seemed to sink beneath her feet as her eyes met the lifeless form on the floor. No stream of liquid flowed from the body. No signs of violence tattooed the flesh. There was only the fearful geometry of the commanders head torqued backward, twisted 180 degrees in the wrong direction. Vittoria fought the images of her own fathers mangled body.The phone on the commanders belt lay against the floor, vibrating over and over against the cold stain. Vittoria hung up her own phone, and the ringing stopped. In the silence, Vittoria heard a new sound. A breathing in the dark directly behind her.She started to spin, gun raised, but she knew she was too late. A laser beam of heat screamed from the top of her skull to the soles of her feet as the killers elbow crashed down on the back of her neck.Now yo u are mine, a voice said.Then, everything went black.Across the sanctuary, on the left lateral wall, Langdon balanced atop a pew and scraped upward on the wall trying to reach the cleat. The cable was still six feet above his head. Cleats like these were common in churches and were placed high to prevent tampering. Langdon knew priests used wooden ladders called piuli to access the cleats. The killer had obviously used the churchs ladder to hoist his victim. So where the crazy house is the ladder now Langdon looked down, searching the floor around him. He had a faint recollection of visual perception a ladder in here somewhere. But where? A moment later his heart sank. He realized where he had seen it. He turned toward the raging fire. Sure enough, the ladder was high atop the blaze, engulfed in flames.Filled now with desperation, Langdon scanned the entire church from his raised platform, looking for anything at all that could help him reach the cleat. As his eyes probed the chur ch, he had a sudden realization.Where the hell is Vittoria? She had disappeared. Did she go for help? Langdon screamed out her name, but there was no response. And where is Olivetti?There was a howl of pain from above, and Langdon sensed he was already too late. As his eyes went skyward again and saw the slowly roasting victim, Langdon had thoughts for only one thing. Water. often of it. Put out the fire. At least lower the flames. I need water, damn it he cry out loud.Thats next, a voice growled from the back of the church.Langdon wheeled, almost falling off the pews.Striding up the side aisle directly toward him came a dark monster of a man. Even in the glow of the fire, his eyes burned black. Langdon recognized the gun in his hand as the one from his own jacket pocket the one Vittoria had been carrying when they came in.The sudden wave of panic that rose in Langdon was a frenzy of disjunct fears. His initial replete(predicate) was for Vittoria. What had this animal done to her ? Was she hurt? Or worse? In the same instant, Langdon realized the man overhead was screaming louder. The cardinal would die. Helping him now was impossible. Then, as the Hassassin leveled the gun at Langdons chest, Langdons panic turned inward, his senses on overload. He reacted on instinct as the shot went off. Launching off the bench, Langdon sailed arms first over the sea of church pews.When he hit the pews, he hit harder than he had imagined, immediately rolling to the floor. The marble cushioned his fall with all the grace of cold steel. Footsteps closed to his right. Langdon turned his body toward the front of the church and began scrambling for his life beneath the pews.High above the chapel floor, Cardinal Guidera endured his last torturous moments of consciousness. As he looked down the length of his naked body, he saw the skin on his legs begin to blister and bare away. I am in hell, he decided. God, why hast thou forsaken me? He knew this must be hell because he was lo oking at the brand on his chest upside down and yet, as if by the devils magic, the word made perfect sense.Angels & Demons92Three ballotings. No Pope.Inside the Sistine Chapel, Cardinal Mortati had begun praying for a miracle. target us the candidates The delay had gone long enough. A single missing candidate, Mortati could understand. But all quad? It left no options. Under these conditions, achieving a two-thirds majority would take an act of God Himself.When the bolts on the outermost door began to grind open, Mortati and the entire College of Cardinals wheeled in unison toward the entrance. Mortati knew this unsealing could mean only one thing. By law, the chapel door could only be unsealed for two reasons to remove the very ill, or to appropriate late cardinals.The preferiti are comingMortatis heart soared. Conclave had been saved.But when the door opened, the gasp that echoed through the chapel was not one of joy. Mortati stared in incredulous shock as the man walked in. For the first time in Vatican history, a camerlegno had just crossed the sacred threshold of conclave after sealing the doors.What is he cerebrationThe camerlegno strode to the altar and turned to address the thunderstruck audience. Signori, he said, I have waited as long as I can. There is something you have a right to know.