Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Self-Supervision and Plan

Clinical mental health counselors diagnose, treat, and test psychological disorders as well as support and teach clients skills needed for positive behavior changes. According to the 2012 American Mental Health Counselors Association’s (AMHCA) code of ethics â€Å"Mental health counselors believe in the dignity and worth of the individual. They are committed to increasing knowledge of human behavior and understanding of themselves and others. They use their skills only for purposes consistent with these values and do not knowingly permit their misuse by others.While demanding for themselves freedom of inquiry and community, mental health counselors accept the responsibility this freedom confers: competence, objectivity in the application of skills, and concern for the best interest of clients, colleagues, and society in general†. They promote clients well-being on multiple levels by providing prevention services and treatments for a wide range of clients in diverse sett ings (Gladding & Newsome, 2010). According to the AMHCA, â€Å"mental health counselors have a primary obligation to safeguard information about individuals obtained in the course of practice, teaching, or research.Personal information is communicated to others only with the person's written consent or in those circumstances where there is clear and imminent danger to the client, to others or to society. Disclosure of counseling information is restricted to what is necessary, relevant and verifiable†. Another role of mental health counselors would be to actively learn and promote as well as be sensitive to the different cultural, ethnic, and diverse backgrounds of their clients. Continuous education, research, and self-awareness are the competent counselor’s key to effective, safe, diverse, accepting, and empowering counseling treatment and career.With the growing diversity of the U. S. population, counselors are increasingly called on to make their services more widel y available in racially and ethnically diverse localities. Ethnic and racial disparities in mental health are driven by social factors such as housing, education, and income (Vasquez, 2007). According to Vasquez, providing services to specific populations and building a niche practice can help a counselor remain competitive, gain new experiences and clients, and become recognized as an expert in working with particular populations.â€Å"Developing awareness of cultural values — such as reliance on family support systems, collective decision making, spirituality and respect for peers — is paramount in reaching out to diverse populations. The ability to understand and respect a prospective client's belief system is crucial† (Vasquez, 2007). Cultural factors such as counselors’ gender and office environment (like artwork and furniture arrangement) may have a bearing on the demand for as well as the delivery of services.Counselor education faculty often urge students to celebrate diversity, but the average student is not equipped with knowledge of the components of the RESPECTFUL Counseling Cube (D’Andrea & Daniels, 2001). These include religion and spirituality (R), economic class background (E), sexual identity (S), psychological maturity (P), ethnic and racial identity (E), chronological stage (C), trauma (T), family background (F), unique physical characteristics (U), and geographical location (L).Assessing the differing views of the above domains by diverse clients will affect the counseling process and can be used as a guide to accommodate culturally diverse clients. It is time for the counseling profession not only to recognize multicultural and diversity issues, but to develop systematic and practical approaches for helping counselors address and adapt counseling practices with culturally diverse clients (LeBeauf, Smaby & Maddux, 2009).According to the American Mental Health Counseling Association (AMHCA), Clinical Mental Health Counselors who deliver clinical services must comply with state statutes and regulations governing the practice of clinical mental health counseling and adhere to all state laws governing the practice of clinical mental health counseling. In addition, they must also abide by all administrative rules, ethical standards, and other requirements of state clinical mental health counseling or other regulatory boards (AMHCA, 2012).Mental health counselors promote clients well-being on multiple levels by providing prevention services and treatments for a wide range of clients in diverse settings (Gladding & Newsome, 2010). The profession of mental health counseling is continuously changing and evolving. Some of those changes are pleasantly welcomed, while others are not so much. Mental health counselors must stay updated, educated, and involved in all aspects of the profession in order to best serve their clients.State and national policies on mental health counseling are there to p rotect everyone involved. State policies are designed to regulate the professional practice of mental health counseling. This regulation serves to protect the consumer by ensuring that their rights and dignity are not violated (Ford, 2006). Licensing and credentialing are essential to the profession of mental health counseling (Gladding & Newsome, 2010). Counselors must have the competencies to not only keep up with the constant change in public policies but to fight for the rights of their clients as well.Mental health counselors must possess a strong desire to help others as well as the ability to inspire confidence, trust, and respect. Wellness and self-care activities are essential to a counselor’s well-being and professional longevity. Knowledge of human behavior, social systems, self-awareness, diversity, and respect for human dignity are all required qualifications of a mental health counselor. Self-awareness is one of the most important qualities and behaviors of an e ffective counselor because it is a way to explore their personalities, value systems, beliefs, natural inclinations, and tendencies.To become self-aware is to become familiar with one’s worldviews and is often the first step for many in becoming self-improved through personal goal setting. Self-awareness is also empowering and therefore brings the counselor a better understanding of themselves and their clients. Morrisette (2002) describes how self-awareness impacts the counselor’s identity by helping them understand a myriad of situations from many different perspectives. This understanding enables them to seek out solutions with multiple approaches, and to understand and evaluate the consequences and outcomes of those approaches.Self-awareness is a critical component to the development and success of a counselor because it the key to ethical decision making in counseling (Remley & Herlihy, 2010). A counselor that is self-aware not only understands their clients but a lso empathizes with them which in turn helps in building trust and developing a more therapeutic relationship. Clinical mental Health Counselors help clients work through a wide range of personal issues from career changes to relationship problems, anger management, depression, self-image, stress, parenting, addiction, and suicidal thoughts.They have many different roles and responsibilities that it is almost impossible to identify them all, but most importantly they are obligated to develop and maintain a safe, trusting, and comfortable relationship for their clients at all times in order for the therapy to work. The mission of the American Counseling Association is to enhance the quality of life in society by promoting the development of professional counselors, advancing the counseling profession, and using the profession and practice of counseling to promote respect for human dignity and diversity (ACA, 2005).I believe that my past experiences, diverse cultural background, and e ducation will play a major role in my success as a mental health counselor. They have equipped me with the necessary tools to be an effective counselor. My familial experiences taught me to appreciate, respect, and love others. My cultural background taught me to never judge a book by its cover and to accept others for whom they are. My educational background in Medicine taught me how the human body works, and especially how genetics plays a major role on the development of the individual.As a future mental health counselor I would like to help those that have gone through or shared similar experiences as I have. My families’ refuge experience taught me immensely and shaped me into the person that I am today. Some of those life lessons are but not limited to: perseverance, patience, self-efficacy, acculturation, love, forgiveness, cultural diversity, advocacy, and respect for one’s self and others. I view my past hardships and challenges as tools that will guide me to fulfill what may possibly be my calling in life which is to counsel, educate, and empower those that went through similar situations as my family and I did.I would like to work in a private practice as a family therapist, or a refugee counselor, even for an advocacy group that would allow me to utilize my knowledge in the subject areas of refugee counseling, cultural/ethnic diversity, and immigrant counseling. As a refugee counselor I would not only focus on immigrants' time in the United States, but also on their reasons for leaving their homeland, their experience of migration, their resources to function in unfamiliar environments, and the receptiveness of the new country (both politically and socially) to their presence.My diverse background, education, and personal experience will allow me to understand and relate to my clients on a deeper level. Sue & Sue (2003) state that in order to be a culturally competent professional, one must first be aware of his or her own values and biases and how they may affect minorities. I believe that my personal life lessons have equipped me with the necessary tools to become an effective and culturally competent mental health counselor. The aim of counseling supervision should be supervision of the counselors own self supervision.As Confucius said, â€Å"Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day; teach him to fish and you feed him for a hundred years† (O'Hanlon & Wilk, 1987, p. 264). One of the most important qualities that I learned as a result of my family’s migratory experience would be that of self-confidence and self-efficacy. Fostering students’ confidence in their abilities to effectively work with the clients they intend to serve has been a longstanding goal of most counselor education programs (Bernard & Goodyear, 2004; Hensley, Smith, & Thompson, 2003).In general, those counselors who are more confident in their ability to use their clinical skills in real life settings often provide a h igher quality of counseling services to the clients they serve (Barnes, 2004; Bradley & Fiorini, 1999). One of the major approaches often used when investigating the process of gaining competence and self-confidence in particular domains of behavior has been self-efficacy theory (Bandura, 1989).Also called perceived ability, self-efficacy refers to the confidence people have in their abilities to successfully perform a particular task (Bandura, 1986). Counseling self-efficacy (CSE), according to Larson (1998), is best described as the beliefs or judgments an individual has about his or her capability to effectively counsel a client in the near future. It is an important factor related to the level of anxiety novice counselors experience as well as the amount of effort they put forth to learn advanced counseling behaviors (Larson, 1998).As a result, some counselor educators and researchers have suggested that increasing counseling trainees’ self-efficacy is a worthwhile traini ng goal (Larson, 1998) and that examinations of this construct should be included in both the research and evaluation of counselor competency and training effectiveness (Yuen, Chan, Lau, Lam, & Shek, 2004). Koob (1998) stated that â€Å"Therapist burnout and career changes, even after several years of being a therapist, can be traced back to ineffective supervision and that traditional models of supervision have been ineffective in promoting positive perceived self-efficacy in therapists in training.Therefore, the lack of self-efficacy greatly impacts the counselor’s effectiveness and competence levels. A supervision model that builds confidence and self-efficacy is needed for counselor success and career longevity. Such supervisory model would be the solution-focused which â€Å"emphasizes competence, strengths, and possibilities rather than deficits, weaknesses, and limitations† (Morrissette, 2002). Solution-focused supervision, in parallel with therapeutic practice , is about collaborating in a partnership  which pays attention to, and develops, the supervisee's interests, best intentions, and goals for their work (De Shazer, 1988).Solution-focused supervision focuses on abilities, learning, and strengths that the therapist already has. It also allows the therapist to acknowledge what services work best with their clients such as their skills, abilities, and creative ideas. Another area of strength would be developing the supervisee's preferred future or outcome and collaborating with the counselors and the clients regarding their work together where they focus on the goals and the solutions versus the problem.It also allows the counselors to take a ‘not-knowing’ position as well as uses scales to measure and develop progress while offering appropriate, evidenced compliments respectfully. On the other hand, solution-focused supervision requires the problem or challenge to be clearly identified in order for it to be successful; m ust present a problem in order to seek resolution. Identifying the problem sometimes may present challenges to the counselor‘s self-supervision model.This type of model allows the supervisees to evaluate themselves and identify and improve their own strengths and weaknesses which promote positive behavioral changes. Helping a refuge family of four adapt to their new surroundings is an example of solution focused supervision; guiding them through their acculturation process, where becoming competent of the family’s cultural beliefs, backgrounds, and worldviews through community resources and support groups.The counselor can research and educate themselves about all aspects of the client’s culture giving the counselor self-confidence to conduct effective counseling sessions. The Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) defines counselor supervision as: A form of instruction where by a supervisor monitors and evaluates an int ernship or practicum student’s performance and quality of service provided, facilitating associated learning and skill development experiences (CACREP, 2009).According to the American Psychological Association, supervision covers a vast and diverse collection of responsibilities, including but not limited to: monitoring, evaluating, instructing, advising, modeling, consulting, supporting, foster autonomy within the supervisee and a responsibility to the patient, profession, system and society. Supervision also addresses legal and ethical issues that may arise, thus further emphasizing the importance of effective training within the mental health profession (www. apa. org).It is necessary to improve client care, develop the professionalism of clinical personnel, and impart and maintain ethical standards in the field. The quality and focus of supervision may have a direct impact on counselor development, service delivery, and, most important, client care; and therefore should n ot be taken lightly. Supervision is a key component of counselor growth and ongoing development (Campbell, 2006) and impacts counselors’ attitudes, clinical style, and practice (Allen, Szollos, & Williams, 1986; Magnuson, Norem & Wilcoxon, 2002).The type of supervision can vary depending on various aspects such as the supervisee’s place of internship and work environment, client population, financial resource, and diversity of clients. What appeals to some supervisees may not appeal to others? Some may not feel comfortable using the solutions focused supervision model as much as I do. This model stresses growth through increasing one’s self efficacy and boosting self-confidence which are vital aspects for me as a future mental health counselor that aspires to work with immigrant and refugee youth self-efficacy is.Supervision of counselors has been described as an on-going, essential, mutually advantageous, and impossible task (Borders & Brown, 2005; Bernard & Go odyear, 2004; Zinkin, 1989). Counselor supervision has undergone a variety of transformations since its emergence, however, the main goal of supervision remained the same which is to help guide counselors provide a better service to their clients which promotes growth and positive way of living.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Satirical Elements in “Slaughterhouse-Five”

Kurt Vonnegut uses a variety of elements including satire which he was credited with being a master of, in â€Å"Slaughterhouse-Five† where he tells the story of Billy Pilgrim. The book is loosely based on Vonnegut’s experiences during the firebombing of Dresden in World War II. The literary element in â€Å"Slaughterhouse-Five† that I will focus on is this paper is his element of satire. Even the plot of this novel can be found to have satire in it. This main character Billy Pilgrim becomes unstuck in time after being abducted by aliens from the planet Tralfamadore where he is mated with a porn star. I even found satire in that Billy Pilgrim, was a bumbling and unlikely hero character. The fictional alter ego Billy Pilgrim was born in 1922, which if you happen to know about Vonnegut’s life, he too was born in 1922. I find satire in his Vonnegut’s fictional author, Kilgore Trout. It is rumored that this â€Å"Kilgore† could have been anyone from author Theodore Sturgeon, science fiction author Philip K. Dick or even Vonnegut’s own alter ego. Readers could find satire in the circumstances of the death of character Edgar Derby. Edgar was among the survivors of the war of Dresden and was engaged in the clean-up activities. The imprisoned soldiers were instructed to use flame-throwers to burn the bodies and the ruins of the war left in Dresden. Derby then gets shot by a guard for simply taking a teapot from the ruins after Derby had survived the fire-bombing of Dresden during World War II. In one part of â€Å"Slaughterhouse-Five,† we find an inebriated Billy Pilgrim entering his car while desperately trying to locate the missing steering wheel to the car and the readers are then clued in that he has entered the back seat area of the car. In another part of â€Å"Slaughterhouse-Five† Billy Pilgrim becomes unstuck in time while watching television. We read as Billy then watches a war film backwards and then he watches it forwards. During the wedding night to his wife Valencia, he first travels from the zoo on Tralfamadore. Billy wakes up only to find himself in a German prison camp. Upon returning from the bathroom, he finds himself back with his wife. Billy goes to sleep again only to wake up on a train to his father’s funeral. The story used satire and dark humor somewhat interchangeably at points. A kind of ironic satire perhaps could be found when Billy’s American compatriot Roland continues to hit Billy because he feels Billy is moving too slowly. The German soldiers or â€Å"the enemies† then arrive and rescue Billy from further mistreatment from his American compatriot. Billy’s fear of being displayed naked in the zoo could be satire or associated with Billy (or Vonnegut) not yet feeling comfortable in revealing his personal thought processes at this time. He could have been aware enough that he realized he didn’t want to be exposed for who he really was at that point in his life or that point in his mind. One could count it political satire when Vonnegut includes bits denegrading U. S. foreign policy and the U. S. Army in general. Vonnegut also satires egocentricity. I suppose some of the satire can be seen in how Billy Pilgrim criticizes those who are not assertive, those who are not in control of their lives. However, throughout the novel, even when Billy knew the plane was going to crash he said nothing and did nothing. He just let the flow of events happen. At this point he still felt as if the moment is structured and one cannot alter the moment. It wasn’t until the end when Billy has brain surgery he changes from being indifferent towards life to being proactive. It wasn’t until the brain surgery that Billy showed initiative and actively helped others. One could see satire in that in his normal state without surgery Billy was a passive member of society. It wasn’t until brain surgery, the positive changes or proactive changes begin to occur in Billy’s life.

Monday, July 29, 2019

To what extent can improvements in productive flow and product quality Essay - 9

To what extent can improvements in productive flow and product quality lead to an increase in sales and profit - Essay Example Implementation of the new EHR systems requires the incorporation of older records into the patient’s electronic health record. One of the strategies involved in the incorporation of old records is scanning of older documents and including them in the system in the image format. However, studies by Ventres et al., (124–31) affirm that most physicians do not prefer inclusion of scanned images in the electronic systems. They prefer full electronic data-based systems because most scanned images are normally unclear; therefore difficult to read. The problem can be resolved through the development of EHR systems with image archival characteristics for converting the scanned documents into full electronic health records. The written records can also be converted into electronic formats through scanning the documents and then performing the Optical Data Recognition (OPR). Accurate recognition may not achieve the required clarity levels while illegible handwriting is poorly reco gnized by the optical character readers. This leads to the formation of the records that are difficult to read. The most successful strategy is making of the state’s database records available for transfer through downloading into individual health records. Privacy. Currently, health records are vulnerable for transmission and exchange over the internet. Rule for access, storage, auditing, authentications and transmission of medical records are contained in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) (Zaroukian 53-55). Although the restrictions are geared towards promoting the privacy of these records, concerns over the adequacy of the implementation of these standards exist. According to Zaroukian (56), implementation of the privacy regulations can only be achieved through enhancing cooperation between the public, health providers and service providers. The privacy concerns are the prominent challenge stalling the

Sunday, July 28, 2019

President Obama Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

President Obama - Essay Example The reality of his performance, however, has been subject to serious scrutiny. Barack Obama is the 44th president of the United States. Having a Kenyan father and spending some time in Indonesia, Obama is considered as a representative of the American Story of success (White House, 2011). He is also the winner of the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize. He made history in 2008 when he won the U.S. presidential election. But who is Barack Obama, the individual? Answering that question is much more difficult than it seems. Belonging to a family headed by a Kenyan father and his childhood spent in Jakarta definitely separates him from the long line of presidents hailing, almost exclusively, from the native land. More fruitful for understanding who he is and what he is about is the portrait of a highly ambitious politician with the self-assurance that stems from a stellar Ivy League record, a wife to match and early electoral successes. These are the traits that do not, as an understatement, represen t the average African American. Hence his ‘African Americanism’ is not part of his core identity. He is analogous to any previous or forthcoming American president in all relevant ways. We must, however, agree to acknowledge this accomplishment and consider it a benchmark for years to come. Despite his African American reality, Obama was able to attract scores of people to support him before being the president elect, and even before being the first choice candidate for the democrats. The enormity of his achievement is summarized by the fact that not only is he the first African American president, he is also one of the few presidents to live up to his word post election. Michelle Obama has also been a source of inspiration for many Americans. Not only is she the first African American lady, she is also a philanthropist, activist and ardent supporter of her husband’s policies. Her contribution is not limited to the advice she gives to her husband on the administr ative front, rather he unwavering support and love for the president acts as a source of peace and serenity. The president often quotes her to be as the source of love and calm in her life. She is not only fulfilling her duties as a first lady, she is also fulfilling her responsibilities as a mother, wife and patron of the family at the fullest. This is what any working man needs, and given the fact that her man is the most important man in the world, she is definitely not disappointing anyone in making life easy for him. Analyzing his reign: The first two years of Barack Obama’s reign saw the compilation of a substantial amount of policy accomplishment. The major changes and policy initiatives undertaken by his government include the economic stimulus ( meant to correct the mess created by years of non-regulation and poor foresight by previous policy makers), bringing a substantial recovery to the financial system, aiding two of the major auto makers of the United States, th e universal healthcare program, the increasing initiative and reform for financial regulation and significant changes in the foreign policy, especially with respect to Iraq, Afghanistan and Pakistan. The foreign policy of Barack Obama’s office is often compared with that of the President Bush’s reign. The Bush doctrine saw a turn in US foreign policy, marked by full scale militarization and the unilateralism in achieving the objective of defending the US security and its vital interest, irrespective of other countries, and by establishing US hegemony in the world. Obama’s foreign policy strategy aims at reaffirming US leadership in a changing

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Plant Psychology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Plant Psychology - Essay Example After all, they too have requirements for living as others, and if at all these requirements are not fulfilled, they will cease to survive. So there any proof of plants' behavior Plants do some amazing things; photosynthesis is outstanding work, and so is splitting water molecules. Plants can even communicate amongst each other by releasing chemicals into the air. These chemicals were 'unknown' to humans until we developed instruments sensitive enough to detect them. So, plants do not need to be endowed with superhuman attributes to be displaying psychology. Backster in 1968 claimed that all living cells are capable of "primary perception," a form of direct biological communication. He monitored the electrical resistance on the surface of one leaf on each of three philodendrons to see if they would respond at the moment of death of distant brine shrimp. The plants were monitored throughout these time periods. The procedure was totally automated, and the experimenter left the premises during the process of the experiment. The plant's responses were recorded on a strip chart recorder, which were later analyzed by three blind judges. There was a significantly greater amount of activity on the plants, showing they had 'felt; what had happened to other plants (Sargent, 1982). Simply because plants lack a nervous system, people never care to think over the fact that plants can also portray behavior.

Friday, July 26, 2019

Marketing Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 3

Marketing - Assignment Example â€Å"Since Havaianas emerged from its reinvention strategy in 1994, sales have been growing by a steady 8 percent each year. In 2008 the company sold 184 million pairs of its now famous rubber sandal, 25 million of which were sold outside Brazil. Inside Brazil, the company has achieved the amazing brand penetration rate of 850 pairs sold per 1000 inhabitants† (Havaianas, n.d.). The efforts of the company to build the strong image of the brand internationally took them number years to attain. Thus, the emerging imitations of Havaianas somehow thwart the good image of the brand. The deception that these imitations are giving to the consumers makes them believe that they will get the same value of the product in buying an authentic one. This act does not only transpire stealing the brands name and image but it also harms the consumers as they are not getting the value for their money spent. Also, Havaianas might have an image of delivering poor product because of the existing fa ke brands. This ethical dilemma in Havaianas marketing is something that will not be easily controlled as there are a lot of players in the industry today that had been imitating products one after the other.

How Gender Roles Changed in the United States Over the Last Century Essay

How Gender Roles Changed in the United States Over the Last Century - Essay Example How Gender Roles Changed in the United States Over the Last Century In America, there have been drastic changes regarding the gender roles, notably in the last century. Such changes in the gender roles have affected the American society all round, starting from homes, schools, workplaces and even the government. Most of these changes have seen the female gender become more and more empowered and greatly involved in all issues of the society, which were previously reserved for men. Consequently, the gender constitution of workplaces and schools has changed, having more of the female gender being incorporated in areas that were previously dominated by the male gender only. While such changes have been welcome by many in the society, there did not lack some quarters from which resistance was experienced. Nevertheless, notwithstanding the resistance, the change in gender roles in the American society has occurred anyway. Then right to vote is one such change in gender roles that has occurred in the American society, in the last century. Previously, starting from the colonial times, women were not allowed to vote. However, this changed in 1920, with the 19th amendment to the US constitution, which allowed all genders to be involved in voting, without any discrimination, based on their sexes. This right was fought for by women parties and associations such as the Women suffrage and the National Women party, which sought to have women allowed to vote. The fight for the right to vote was speed up by the World War I, which was referred to, as the war for democracy. After the war ended, women undertook several protests to have them indulged in voting. Although, their protests were ignored for duration of six months, consistency in agitating and protesting eventually made the government agree to consider their grievances (David, 113). Eventually, the government agreed on the 19th amendment, which allowed wo men to be involved in voting, for all elective posts, both in the government and other organizations. This has acted as a major step towards enhancing equality for all genders, in matters to do with decision making, as earlier, only the male gender would be involved in such decision making, thus instilling their will on the female gender (Bailey, 36). The right to vote has allowed women not only vote for the members of the male gender, but also the female as well. This has allowed them get involved and represented in all spheres such as political, religious, social, and economic. Another major change in the gender roles is the roles played by women in the workplace currently, compared to the past centuries. There has been a great increase in the number of women at the workplace, who accounts for 47% of the entire American workforce currently (David, 65). By the year 1995, the percentage of women who were working away from their homes had increased to a tune of 76%. By the start of t he 20th century, women were not expected to be working and as such were meant to remain at home and undertake the domestic duties such as caring for children and performing other domestic chores such as cooking and washing. However, with increased access for education by the female gender, their

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Why accounting Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Why accounting - Assignment Example ) under ‘You’re Hired† portion: that the Department of Labor and Statistics indicated that â€Å"employment of accountants and auditors will grow faster than average for all occupations through the year 2016† (The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants) which makes pursuing accounting very attractive. The â€Å"Career Options† tab provides various career options in different fields and endeavors for accountants. The two things that were interesting are: (1) under non-profit and education area which presented options for accountants under the roles of a CPA at a favorite charity; an accounting teacher; as well as a volunteer accountant, where non-profit organizations and educational institutions could use their skills to generate more funds; (2) under travel: where accountants could pursue a full-time profession in other international destinations and could assume roles such as auditors, and CPAs in tourism and hospitality organizations (The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants: Travel), which are career paths that are dynamic. profession: such as strong leadership, communication skills, technological know-how, and being business savvy. The two things found interesting were: (1) learning to lead is through experience and from seeing oneself assuming leadership roles; it is interesting since one could be encouraged to be a leader through daily experiences; and (2) finding out how to develop communication skills through school activities, such as working in groups, making presentations, participating in public speaking endeavors, and acting in plays (The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants: CPA Skills), among others. The â€Å"Real Life CPAs† tab is all about information and experiences of known people who are CPAs in different industries and environments; such as Julie Herwitt and Mary MacBain, to name a few. These two CPAs were found to be most interesting, since: (1) Julie Herwitt has been a CPA for 27 years and was

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Civil war Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Civil war - Case Study Example Q1. The scramble for Africa incorporated the entrance of African slave traders into African interior. The countries that were primary colonizers of Africa included the French and the British. Enlightenment, new science, and industrial revolution influenced Europeans regard for Africa by the superior military in machine guns and a colony of boundaries drawn in the exploitation of tribal, religious and linguistic differences. Q1. The significance of Haitian revolution is that it became the second republic in W. Hemisphere. Haitian constitution of 1801 reflects enlightenment by Article 29, which states in future each governor names after five years and allowed to continue after every five years if overseen by the proper administration. On the other hand, it does not reflect the enlightenment through since Article 5 does not exist distinctions other than those based on virtues and talents (Carnes 15). Q2. The significance of Monroe Doctrine 1823 was the assortment if itself as the dominant force in Western Hemisphere. Roosevelt Corollary 1904 significance was financial involvement in Central and South American countries facing economic and political

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Declaration of Independence Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Declaration of Independence - Essay Example Citizens have natural rights that the government cannot bestow or take away. The country was founded by people who believed this concept and wrote the Constitution to forever protect personal freedoms, a concept not reflective of attitudes toward freedom. To what extent personal freedom should be permitted is not the issue. Personal freedoms are an American birthright that is slowly but surely eroding over time. Whether or not the American people have the courage to protect and restore these freedoms is the real issue. The Founding Fathers displayed courage when they broke away from a tyrannical, oppressive King of England who ruled over the most powerful military at that time to establish a country where personal autonomy was considered the most precious commodity in a society. The seeds of the Founders’ concept of law and freedom emanated from Britain. The Constitution was inspired by the Magna Charta and British philosopher John Locke helped to lay the foundation for the Fo unders’ deep belief in personal freedoms. Locke defined each individual as having the right to â€Å"life, liberty and estate† (Locke, 1960 p. 448). These words have an almost identical mirror in the beginning paragraphs of the Declaration of Independence written nearly 70 years later: â€Å"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness† (â€Å"Declaration of Independence† 1776).

Monday, July 22, 2019

The Effects of Single Parenting on Children Essay Example for Free

The Effects of Single Parenting on Children Essay For as long as human families have existed, the core family group of a father, mother, and the children has been the ideal composition in what could be considered a balanced and fulfilling functional family. There had been many studies of the effects of having certain members of these groups on the family household present and absent. While there are many hypothesis of the effects of the children in the family in household with a missing parent, most of them are indeed negative and there had been studies that these can vary in many different aspects of a child’s upbringing. These effects will be discussed and functionality of the household family itself will be discussed to look at the issues mostly in the mother and child side. This is because typically in a single parent family it is usually the mother that the children will be left with after a divorce or separation takes place. It is true that in many circumstances that a single parent father may be left responsible for the children but this does not seem to occur nearly as likely as many times unwed pregnancies leave the mother responsible for raising the child. The fact is however that these occurrences of single parent families especially for single parent mothers are prevalent enough to be an issue. This is even more so as studies have indicated that unwed births, which increase the amount of single parent families, have been increasing as well. Trends have been found that in from the year 1960 and 1995 an increase of 26. 9% of unwed births has been seen while an increase of 4. 4% between the years 1995 to 2005. Studies in 2004 suggest that the percentage of women of ages 20-24 who have given birth to children are unmarried 55% of the time while women of ages 25-29 are unmarried 29% of the time when bearing children (5). The importance of this issue is well known and has been addressed for a long time since single mother circumstances has always been occurring for a variety of reasons. The biggest reason is most likely because the mother herself is the one who gives birth to the child, which naturally begins the relationship with the mother and child promptly at the start of the child’s life. In history men had been always been the sex responsible for representing their nation or group for military conflict and casualties in any engagement is mostly costly to the lives of the men who participate in the actual fighting. The loss of a women’s husband in general if either from war or otherwise will result in the woman being left alone to care for the child. Also since divorce, unwed pregnancies, or even rape will result in the mother’s absence in a father figure for the environmental upbringing for the child, the heart of the research in the single parent family usually involves the effects of the missing father. The importance of the father figure is substantial for the child even in the early days of infancy. Although it is the mother that is more responsible for the nurturing nature that the child requires, it has been shown that a father figure’s presence is significant even during infancy. There are differences in the way that a mother and father interact with a baby although these are limited mostly to one-sided communication and touch between the baby and the parent. The mother as mentioned before has the most interaction with the infant and is usually more comforting often speaking to the infant with more soothing and rhythmical fashion. This is different typically in father’s who usually express themselves in a more upfront manner with more physical touching as well as with firmer and abrupt vocal tones. This is important for the child even at the early stages of its development since these types of interactions from the father stimulate the child in a more fun, exciting, and adventurous level. A child that has these stimulations tend to score higher in brain development and critical thinking tests (6). The importance of a father figure is more prevalent in early childhood through the notion of physical play. Besides from the child having opportunity for fun through interaction with another person, a rougher and more challenging (though still comforting) environment that is beneficial for development. This type of play which is more predominant when provided from a father can present the child the opportunity to learn his own physical boundaries, the effect of its own actions on its surrounding world, and to learn about its own emotions while discovering the notions of winning and losing. Studies have proven that interactions with the father through play and otherwise teach children to become more emotionally aware of themselves and others. Studies have shown that these children will also get along better with siblings and peers better due to these emotional developments (6). These benefits for the child can also have lasting effects into later life for developing relationships with others. The father figure is also usually more responsible for influencing challenges and trying new things for young children. This is significant for the development of the child’s problem solving skills as well as his or her self-esteem when able to succeed in new or challenging situations. These can also help build independence as a father figure tends to allow the child to explore the world and try things out for him or herself. The father figure is also more responsible for disciplinary action towards the child which not only teaches the child what kind of behavior is appropriate or not, but also teaches them to be responsible for their actions. Not only by providing discipline, the father figure also sets a role model of responsibility that can cause the child to become less troublesome, able to take responsibility, and not blame others for their circumstances (6). From the start of the child’s life it is evident that the role of both parents is important for the development in healthy children. Aside from the individual roles which are provided by the two parents separately, the problems of having just one parent in the household to take responsibility of the child by him or herself can be hampering for the child’s development as well. There have been correlations that single parent family households may not provide the best living environment for a child. These negative aspects can originate from the actions of the single parent and from the child due to the differences in the environment of a single parent household. These can be because of economic issues as a single parent mother will have more responsibilities for herself to support the family without the assistance of a spouse. These responsibilities can also be trickled down to the child as well and both aspects can be stressful to the mother and to the child. Both of these factors can separately be detrimental to the physical and mental health to the child specifically (1). Studies show that adolescents that are raised by single parents tend to score lower in psychological tests which indicate lower levels of self-esteem, mental health, the ability to concentrate and learn in school, and to interact socially with others (1). There are several variances to how each of these types of results can occur with relevance to being raised in a single parent household. Stress being one of them can be shared by both the child and the parent as the presence in one can cause the other family member to experience it as well. The stress can occur from both economic and social hardships from being a single parent. With the higher level of responsibilities being put on the single parent, it is often seen that the child is left with more household duties than children with both a mother and a father. The higher amount of chores and stress brought on from them coupled with the stress felt by the child from parent can have negative effects on the child emotionally. The stress and worsen moods generated from these living conditions can increase the occurrences of mental illness and also bad behavior (1). This is also harder to deal with for the single parent as the larger workload put upon them and the stress that is brought with it leaves them with less resources and time to appropriately interact with the child. It can be noted also that adolescent children do communicate better with a single parent more and family decisions are made more so with participation with the child. This interestingly however correlates with more determents to mental health as well as self-esteem to the child (1). This can be because the said interactions between the parent and child may not always be positive ones due to the stress discussed earlier. It can be since a single parent may have to lay more responsibility upon the child, fewer rules upon the child’s behavior may be present which can have negative effect on the child’s mental health due to higher levels of insecurity. The higher level of decision making left on the child having negative effects on self-esteem and mental health may be due to greater insecurity and thoughts of incompetence from the child (1). All of these factors of stress, emotional stability, and mental health can have detrimental effects on not only the child’s academic and social progress but also later in life in the work environment as well as parenting their own offspring as well. The physical wellbeing of the child must also be addressed as those may also be compromised when brought up in a single parent family. The ability to provide all the needs to the child in a single parent household are typically lower due to the single parent having less time and resources. Although social programs are available for these situations, studies still prove that single parent children often receive less medical attention than those from with both parents. Plutzer showed in a study that only 57% of children have been brought to dental care facilities by their mothers while a 71% of those from double parent families have been seen (2). These can be again since the single mothers may not have the time to fully attend to these healthcare needs as a discrepancy can be seen in the health care even to the mothers themselves. This is most likely supported by the fact that interventions from the mentioned social programs take more consideration to the single mother families. This may fortify the thought that economic status may not play as big of a role in what can be provided for all these issues for the single parent children. If economic situations may not be the more contributing factor for these underprivileged children, it may be more to the parenting and relationship with the child and single parent that can be the cause. A study has been done to research environmental factors that can cause developmental disorders on young children that focus on children before adolescence and even infancy. These studies have indicated that children that have been raised by single parents are more likely to develop persuasive developmental disorders as well as mental retardation (3). It has also been shown that even in children with both parents present to them that these issues have higher occurrences due to inadequate parenting indicated in low test scores in communication and affected response from either or both parents. But to focus on these issues relating single parenting, it can be said that these problems are from parent performance when considering just environmental factors. It should be mentioned however that economic issues can have an effect in-directly to the higher amount of developmental problems seen in the children brought up by single mothers. The said before stress put on single mothers can cause inadequate parenting starting from birth and could have additive effects on the child during its development. Studies has also indicated that single mothers also have a higher chance of having mental disorders such as depression which can also be detrimental to raising the child at all stages of his or her upbringing (3). This falls back on the interaction with the child and mother that this interaction is much lower when the mother suffers from such ailments. Though studies on developmental disorders and especially mental retardation on young children and infants is relatively new, these can be a productive incentive to hit the issue of young people with behavior problems from a new angle. This is such since studies have proven that children with persuasive developmental disorders are much more likely to have more serious mental issues later in life. Also since mental retardation is predominantly thought to have more genetic causes than environmental. However more studies have proven that environmental factors especially with parent child relations can have a greater effect (3). There have been other instances where economic situations have not played the biggest role in the proper upbringing of a child by single mothers. An issue in Malaysia has risen to the increase of adolescent children in the country. It has been observed that a growing problem with adolescent children’s behavior has arisen due to higher levels of drug use, aggressiveness, gang activity, and other antisocial activity. A study was done on the issue with to focus on the home life and relationship with the children and their parents. This was centered on households where there were children being raised by single mothers since there was also a large increase in the amount of single mothers also occurring. The study covered many family backgrounds with varying economic and social statuses as well as single parent and married couple households. The results were that indeed children being brought up in households run by a single mother had higher chances of displaying antisocial behavior. However many variables were also tested such as the differences in income for these single mothers. It was shown that there was not much difference in the amount of children with these issues from single mother households where the mother earned a large income or low income (4). This fact implies that family structure or the interactions between the parent and the child are the reasons for the bad behavior. It could be thought that the income may be an indirect cause of this behavior since the workload and stress would affect the single mother, who does not have as many benefits in Malaysia. Since however this particular study did not see much correlation between the antisocial behavior of the children and the income of these single mothers, it can be assumed that family structure may play a larger role in the issue. The Islamic family has a core family style that involves having a father figure particularly active during the adolescent stage of the child. These roles that the older male figure in the household is to allow the child to experience the outside world and the responsibilities that come from the culture outside of the household (4). The absence of these older male figures to provide this to the children may put greater stress on the mother who has to solely be responsible for providing all the needs to herself and her children. This hypothesis is further strengthened by the results of the studies that even fully complete families with both he mother and father have seen increases in the amount of antisocial adolescents due to lackluster parenting (4). These ideas have been expressed earlier when discussing the other studies but are further reinforced by this one especially since this was done in a foreign context where the culture differs greatly from in the United States. Though there are many issues that can arise in children from single parent families and those issues can result in a variety of reasons, the focus on the studies presented show that a large amount of problems can come from the large responsibility put on single mothers. The single mothers put at a disadvantage to not having a partner must tend to the needs of her child both emotional and substantially, while at the same time supporting herself. This is a daunting task as much consideration must be put on raising a mentally and physically healthy child. Single mothers are left at an economic disadvantage compared to married mothers obviously, but the main issues come to the interaction between the parent and the child. These important interactions often become deterred one way or another due to the larger responsibilities put on the mother (and sometimes the child) to survive and the stress put upon the mother may affect the mood and psychological state she may be in. These all can have negative impacts on the child which can range from less than adequate habits for physical health, sociemotional issues that can result in antisocial behavior, or even possibly mental retardation and developmental disorders that can result from the lack of parenting during infancy. The biggest issue most likely stems down to the absence of both parents in the child’s life, however most social studies until recently have focused on the economical issues that these single mothers have to deal with. The social programs especially in the United States help with the lower amount of income that single mothers make however, while these income issues may have indirect causes to the problem, it is becoming more prevalent that the parent-child interactions may be the focus and should be implemented in further study as well so that the population may be educated for better care of these children.

Stages of Pregnancy

Stages of Pregnancy Zainab Fareed Conception- is the stage of when the sperm fertilises the egg. There are different stages before conception this includes ovulation, hormone rise, the egg travels to the fallopian tube, if the egg isn’t fertilised, fertilization, implantation: Moving to the uterus and finally pregnancy hormones. Growth- This is a term used when you are growing in weight and height and size. Development-Development is when you have changes and increasing in skills and abilities. Pregnancy: 3 Trimester stages in pregnancy- First trimester stage- In this stage your body begins to change and you go through different changes. These types of changes happen between (week 1- to week 12) and the hormones in your body begin to change the organs in the body and their systems. Also these changes can cause different symptoms to occur even during the first week of pregnancy. These symptom include- extreme tiredness, morning sickness, mood swings, heartburn etc. 3 weeks of pregnancy- At 6 weeks of pregnancy at this point you are about 6-7 weeks pregnant and there is a large lump where the heart is and a bump at the end of the head of the neural tube. This bump is going to become the baby brain and head. The embryo is curve and has a tail. At this stage the heart can be seen beating on an ultrasound scan at this specific stage. Also the development of the arms and leg form and become visible. At 7 weeks of pregnancy, the embryo is continuing to grow and at this point the embryo is about 10mm long from the head to bottom. Also the brain is continuing to grow faster and this also shows the head is growing faster than the rest of the body. The embryo has a large forehead and eyes and ears are still continuing to develop as the inner ear starts to develop however the outer ear won’t begin to grow for another couple of more weeks. Also the nerve cells continue to multiply and develop as the nervous system begins to take its shape. At 8 weeks of pregnancy, the baby is called a foetus (offspring) and the legs of the baby are lengthening and forming cartilage as well. However the different parts of the body such as the knees, ankles, thighs and toes haven’t fully developed yet and will take some time. Also the placenta is continuing to develop and this when forming structures this is known and called as chorionic villi, this will help attach the placenta to the wall of the womb and at this stage the foetus will get its nourishment from the yolk sac. Second trimester stage- During this stage you will feel like the pregnancy is becoming easier and more causes like nausea and fatigue slowly go away in your pregnancy however more notable changes to your body. Your abdomen will enlarge as the baby is still continuing to grow. This stage happens when you are 13 – 28 weeks pregnant and eventually you can feel the baby moving more. For body changes these include- body aches, stretch marks on abdomen, swelling on the ankles, fingers, face. 3 weeks of pregnancy trimester stages: Week 14- In this week the baby develops different skills such as they can squint, frown, grimace and can possibly suck the thumb etc. Also when doing an ultrasound scan you can possibly check the baby carrying out these skills for example they can possibly see the baby sucking its thumb. Also the baby can grasp too and is being to produce urine. This release the amniotic fluid around the body and this is a process which would continue until birth. However when it comes to the baby’s development the baby is stretching out and approximately the size is from 3 and a half inches. Also by the end of the week the baby’s arm would be growing and also the legs still have to lengthen more. http://www.babycenter.com/6_your-pregnancy-14-weeks_1103.bc Week 17- The baby’s skeleton is changing once again and this time it is from soft cartilage to bone and the umbilical cord. Also the support to the placenta is growing stronger and thicker. At this stage the baby would weigh almost 5 ounces and the length would be around 5 inches long from the head to bottom. The baby can also begin to develop to move the joints and the sweat glands are beginning to develop. http://www.babycenter.com/6_your-pregnancy-17-weeks_1106.bc Week 28- At this week the baby would weigh about 2 Â ¼ pounds and length is 14.8 inches from head to its heels this shows that as the weeks go by the baby is continuing to develop until birth. The baby also picks up on some skills such as blinking their eyes, growth of the baby’s eye lashes, the baby can also see light from the womb and this is filtered light. Also finally the baby is developing billions on neurons in her brain and also gaining a lot of fat in their body to help for when it is born. http://www.babycenter.com/6_your-pregnancy-28-weeks_1117.bc Third trimester stage- In this stage, it consists of going to the toilet regularly, this because the baby is getting bigger and is developing and it’s putting more pressure on your organs. The different symptoms of body changes which occur include- shortness of breath, heartburn, trouble sleeping, contractions etc. Also near to your due date the cervix becomes thinner and softer which is also called effacing. Also these changes happen when you’re in the final trimester stage between 29-40 weeks of pregnancy. 3 weeks of pregnancy trimester stages: Week 30- At this stage the baby’s body length is about 15.7 inches and weighs almost 3 pounds. Also a pint of amniotic fluid surrounds her and the volume will shrink as she gets bigger and takes up a lot of room for the uterus therefore it will become less. The development of the eyes are still continuing to develop and it is not that good however it will develop once the baby is born and also when the baby is born it is likely that it would keep its eyes closed more in the day for some time. http://www.babycenter.com/6_your-pregnancy-30-weeks_1119.bc Week 35- At this stage the baby doesn’t have much room to move as it the baby is length is every long and it is over 18 inches long and weighs 5 Â ¼ pounds. Also not much movement would be going on in the womb as it would be warm and also the number of times the baby kicks would remain the same. As for development the kidneys are fully developed now and this means the liver can take out some waste products. The physical development of the baby is complete and for the weeks coming the baby would continue putting on weight. http://www.babycenter.com/6_your-pregnancy-35-weeks_1124.bc Week 40- At this stage the baby would be developed in many areas and would weight about 7 Â ½ pounds and is 20 inches long. The skull bones are not attached which allows the baby to overlap if it is warm through the birth canal during labours. This also known as moulding which is the reason why the baby’s head shape would look different after birth and this is normal and is not permanent. So these are the different stages in week 40 of pregnancy. http://www.babycenter.com/6_your-pregnancy-40-weeks_1129.bc Labour: 3 Stages- Labour has 3 stages and these include the first years when the contractions open up the neck of your uterus and this consists of early labour and active labour and the transitional phase. The second stage of labour is when you push the baby out into the world and the final third stage is when you deliver the placenta. 1st stage- During pregnancy, your cervix is closed and is full of mucus to keep out infection. In the first stage of labour your cervix has to move forward to what is called anterior position and should be open so that the baby can be born. By the end of this stage the cervix should be fully opened and should be open to about 10cm in diameter. 2nd stage- During the second stage of labour you have to push down the baby from the birth canal and this is when the baby comes out and you have given birth. When giving birth you will feel the pressure of the baby’s head low down to the pelvis. It is important to follow the correct procedures as something can go wrong. When the babys head is down in the pelvis, the mother would probably feel a hot, stinging feeling. When coming down to the final parts the doctor or midwife would tell you to take short breaths this would help resit the need to bear down two or three contractions and this helps the baby to be born gently and slowly. 3rd stage- During the last stage of labour, the baby is born and ends when you deliver the placenta. The contractions will be clear and visible but are weaker when they begin again as the uterus contracts down. Also other options are that the hospital offer an injection which makes the placenta come out however this process has side effects like reducing blood loss and this is because of the drugs. These are the three stages of labour and there are different stages which is involved in this process. Bibliography. Baby centre. (2014). The stages of childbirth. Available: http://www.babycentre.co.uk/a177/the-stages-of-childbirth Last accessed 10/09/2014. Nhs . (2013). Your babys early development. Available: http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/pages/pregnancy-weeks-4-5-6-7-8.aspx#close. Last accessed 10/09/2014. Web Md. (2005). Pregnancy and Conception. Available: http://www.webmd.com/baby/guide/understanding-conception. Last accessed 10/09/2014.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

History of China-Taiwan relationship

History of China-Taiwan relationship Taiwan has been a part of the ancient China since NanSong Dynasty ( about 960 A.D.), During the Chinese civil war from 1945 to 1949, Republic of China (ROC)s administration party, thus, KuoMinTang (KMT) evacuated to Taiwan Island and relocated the national government in Taipei, while the winner, Chinese Communist Party (CCP), has established the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) in Beijing. Both parts has been claiming that they are the only lawful representative of China, however, ROCs losing of its seat in United Nation in 1971 (replaced by PRC) and the effective isolating ROC (Chen, 2006, p110) plan squeezed ROCs international spaces significantly. The United States troop firstly joined the KMT army in 1950s Taiwan Crisis (defined as Taiwan liberating battle by CCP) that has prevent Taiwan from unified by CCP and they then have singed the Mutual Defense Treaty between the USA and ROC in 1954 followed by the Taiwan Relation Art in 1979, the law regulating the US-Taiwan relationship a fter their termination of the official diplomatic relations( Wang, 2010). The US does not accept PRCs claims to sovereignty over Taiwan and CCPs definition of One-China policy and acts as the backup supporter for Taiwans defensive capability. As a result, there is challenge for China and Taiwan making political and military cooperation. Due to the lack of bilateral interactions, according to Saunders, (2005), there was increasing differences between national identities for both parts that posed barriers for further communication. Theory of Security Dilemma: Being one of the most important ideas in the international security world, the security dilemma theory analyses how two countries or regions interact with each other, and the situation of security dilemma (should be distinct from the term security dilemma theory) describes the situation of two states or regions without offensive intentions that get into puzzle when both of them are seeking more security guarantees, in other words, the security dilemma is a crucial process which destabilises the existing balances of power that may finally failed to maintain a secure international order(30 Cerny, 2000). Seen from the huge number of academic works which helped to explain the major political events like the First World War and the Cold War, the security dilemma is deployed to explain more international affairs in contemporary world. Definition of Security Dilemma In short, in this thesis, the security dilemma could be summarized by Alan Collins: â€Å"(when) states take defensive measures to protect themselves, they can inadvertently signal to neighboring states that they might harbour expansionist goals. The scenario represents a deteriorating relationship based upon misperception, where, because the statesmen must provide for their states’ own security, a spiraling process of tension and arms procurement occurs. It is a tragedy, neither intends the other harm but, because they do not know this, their relationship deteriorates† (Collins 1997, 23). To have a more rigorous understanding for the concept, Tang,(2009), mentioned eight major points for security dilemma. â€Å"à ¯Ã‚ ¼Ã‹â€ 1à ¯Ã‚ ¼Ã¢â‚¬ °The ultimate source of the security dilemma is the anarchic nature of international politics.33 à ¯Ã‚ ¼Ã‹â€ 2à ¯Ã‚ ¼Ã¢â‚¬ °2Under anarchy, states cannot be certain about each other’s present and future intentions. As a result, states tend to fear each other (or the possibility that the other side may be a predator).34 à ¯Ã‚ ¼Ã‹â€ 3à ¯Ã‚ ¼Ã¢â‚¬ °The security dilemma is unintentional in origin: a genuine security dilemma can exist only between two defensive realist states (that is, states that merely want security without intending to threaten the other). à ¯Ã‚ ¼Ã‹â€ 4à ¯Ã‚ ¼Ã¢â‚¬ °Because of the uncertainty about each other’s intentions (hereafter, uncertainty) and fear, states resort to the accumulation of power or capabilities as a means of defense, and these capabilities inevitably contain some offensive capabilities. à ¯Ã‚ ¼Ã‹â€ 5à ¯Ã‚ ¼Ã¢â‚¬ °The dynamics of the security dilemma are self-reinforcing and often lead to (unin tended and bad) spirals such as the worsening of relationships and arms races. (6) The dynamics of the security dilemma tends to make some measures for increasing security–for example, accumulating unnecessary offensive capabilities—self-defeating: more power but less security. à ¯Ã‚ ¼Ã‹â€ 7à ¯Ã‚ ¼Ã¢â‚¬ °The vicious cycle derived from the security dilemma can lead to tragic results, such as unnecessary or avoidable wars. (8) The severity of the security dilemma can be regulated by both material factors and psychological factors. (Tang, 2009) According to Tang,(2009) among all the eight points, uncertainty and fear generated in the anarchy structure, malign intention from both sides and accumulation of power are the three essential aspects while others points are not sufficient to construct the security dilemma. Similar to tang, Alan Collins has also concluded â€Å"three features† of security dilemma, which are: mutual suspicion, benign intentions and undesirable options. (Lee, 2009) On the third points, apart from building up the material capabilities, Collins has mentioned another scenario of the state’s reaction that if policy-makers decide to do nothing to reassure other states, this will also bring the state into risk by presenting †a window for others to exploit any weakness†(1122Lee, 2009). Collins’ idea is corresponding to Booth and Wheeler’s (2008,p4) explanation of â€Å"a dilemma of response† which refers to when faced with military build-up in the counterpart sta te, decision-makers have difficulty in choosing a reassuring or a deterrent reaction. In sum, no matter what actions the sates take, there is a big chance of a vicious circle that decreases the security level for both sides. The Review of Security Dilemma Study In this section, first, in order to have a more comprehensive understanding, there is a brief review of the academic works on the security dilemma security study; and second, have a look at the factors which affect the severity of security dilemma. The development of security dilemma could be regarded as a process of academic debate on whether the security dilemma could be mitigated in the anarchic international conditions. The earliest literatures under offensive realism have argued that there is an irreducible conflict between defensive states when they ask for more security because of the uncertainty. However, defensive realists, such as Robert Jervis, thinks the security dilemma could be mitigated when, under certain condition, both states successfully signal their benign intention to each other and then make a long-term cooperation(Jervis, 1796, p81). The constructivist approach strengthens the dialogue among policymakers which assign new connotations to the material factors tha t intensify the security dilemma. The offensive realism, coined by John Mearsheimer (Booth and Wheeler,2008,p35), or the fatalist logic of insecurity concluded by Booth and Wheeler, refers to ensuring one state’s own security by pursuing the â€Å"overwhelming power† (Mearsheimer, 2007), and policy makers must adopt â€Å"worst-case scenario assumptions† when to interpret others’ intention. As a result, there is an inescapable security competition between states and increases the risk of war. Though the writings of John Herz and Herbert Butterfield were before the came out of the term â€Å"offensive realism†, they are holding a same conclusion (Tan, 2007) John Herz has first coined the term â€Å" security dilemma† in 1950, (Herz, 1950), the key passage about how the security dilemma leads to the security paradox as follow: â€Å"Anarchic society has exited†¦Groups and individuals who live alongside each other without being organized into a higher unity . . . must be . . . concerned about their security from being attacked, subjected, dominated, or annihilated by other groups and individuals. Striving to attain security from such attacks, they are driven to acquire more and more power in order to escape the effects of the power of others. This, in turn, renders the others more insecure and compels them to prepare for the worst. Because no state can ever feel entirely secure in such a world of competing units, power competition ensues, and the vicious circle of security and power accumulation is on.† (b1,p22 Herz, 1950, p157) In Herz’s early argument, it is the fear of being attacked and â€Å"self-preservation† that drives the state to maximise its power, while the human nature of peace or aggression does not matter so much to the security dilemma. Though did not speak explicitly, Herz’s security dilemma is unintentional since it arises from states’ accumulation of power due to fear and uncertainty. Moreover, in his 1951 work, Herz explored the relationship between power and security dilemma. (Herz, 1952, p200) by noting that they â€Å"works with more drastic force† and in a more â€Å"brutal form† without the supervising power. Meanwhile, the British historian Herbert Butterfield use the phrase irreducible dilemma(Butterfield cited in Booth and Wheeler,2008,p27) to describe a similar situation. Butterfield suggests that statesmen would be virtuous and may not use a harmful way to grantee their national interests. However, there is a â€Å"tragic element in hum an conflict†, thus â€Å"fear and suspicion†, that makes states fail to know each other’s counter-fear and regard â€Å"others’ subsequent reactions to those fears as sign of aggression†(Lee,2009), consequently, conflicts would break out. Robert Jerviss plenty work on security dilemma has brought it to the mainstream though there is lack of a systematic definition. According to Tang,(2009), from different places, Jervis defined the security dilemma as follow: under the defensive intentions, a states action to increase its security would threaten the other state and then result in undesired consequence. Jervis emphasises the anarchic context of international relations and thinks human nature would have little effect on the security dilemma. Jervis’s â€Å"spiral model†,which generally refers to the â€Å"pursuit of self-defeating power by status quo states(Tan, 2007)† is a breakthrough work in the security dilemma studies. One br eakthrough made by Jervis, according to Tan, (2007), is that he thinks there is possibility for states under security dilemma situation to move escape the fatalist logic of insecurity by perceive the defensive intention from each other.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Positive Feedback Loops in Early Human Development :: Environment Environmental Pollution Preservation

Positive Feedback Loops in Early Human Development There is no doubt that technology facilitated human development throughout history. However, what has been left largely untouched among the authors of the texts for this course is why technology has had such a tremendous effect on the evolution of the human species and its relationship with its environment. This essay will attempt to show that the effects of technology were subject to a multiplier effect inherent in positive feedback loops. In other words, every historical technological innovation gave way to a change in human behavior and physical capabilities, which, in turn, allowed for further technological innovation. Because this loop has been so incredibly successful, humans have overwhelmed the environment by continually growing towards, and sometimes beyond, its natural carrying capacity. The only reason why humans have not surpassed the upper limit of environmental tolerance is our own technological innovation which exists as part of the positive feedback loop; hence the or igin of the term "tech fix" (the idea that human ingenuity will overcome all environmental limitations). The positive feedback loop that is responsible for the dominance of the human species is very much like a game of elementary school dodge-ball. Initially, there is no skill involved; a mess of children with the sole intention of remaining alive in the game. Only, it is not entirely random because there are the few children who are particularly well-suited for the game. Be it because they are more agile or perhaps they understand the movement a little better than the rest. Whatever the reason, they are able to continue playing the game longer than a child who runs around as if his eyes were closed. The more able children will then gain more experience and be able to stay in even longer and dominate in the next game, and so the positive feedback loop proceeds to take shape. Early humans were similar in that what set them apart from the rest of the animals is that, for some reason, they had a natural inclination towards tool-making and technology. With these tools they were able to domi nate the evolutionary "game", so to speak. The multiplier effect comes from the fact that the loop, once it has begun, will be self-propagating, such that one invention will inevitably allow for another. Conversely, a negative feedback loop is "self-limiting rather than self-reinforcing", as put by Tom Tietenberg in his text Environmental and Natural Resource Economics.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Communism and Karl Marx :: Communism Essays

Karl Marx was an idealist. He observed the cruelties and injustices that the poor working class endured during the period of industrial revolution, and was inspired to write of a society in which no oppression existed for any class of people. Marx believed in a revolution that would end socialism and capitalism, and focus on communist principles. The Communist Manifesto, written by Karl Marx, describes the goals of the communist party for ending exploitation of the working class and creating a society in which there is equality without social classes. As a historian, philosopher, and revolutionary, Marx has helped shaped the society of the past, present and future. He is known for being a liberal reformist who believed that capitalism could be reformed and inequality of the working classes could be addressed and abolished. I agree with Marx?s view points and feel he is a man that has achieved many great experiences throughout his lifetime for which he is remembered. "In communist society, where nobody has one exclusive sphere of activity but each can become accomplished in any branch he wishes, society regulates the general production and thus makes it possible for me to do one thing today and another tomorrow, to hunt in the morning, fish in the afternoon, rear cattle in the evening, criticize after dinner, just as I have a mind, without ever becoming hunter, fisherman, herdsman or critic." Marx idea gives the individual the ability to make choices, and the responsibility for the consequences of those choices. He attacks capitalism and criticizes it importunately because it produces inequality, reduces the family relationship, destroys small business, and enslaves. With a Capitalist system governing the society, powerful forces of self interest have a natural tendency to lead to collusion and corruption. In other words capitalist tend to seek power and to use it to rig the market to their favor to detriment of the society. Marx knew the class struggles that were apparent in Europe in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and how the division of classes affected one?s life. The bourgeoisie was the wealthy upper class and they proletariats were the lower working classes of Europe. This is where the theme of autonomy and responsibility steps in and plays a role in the changes that were made in society.

The Qatar Islamic Arts Museum Essay -- Art

Introduction: In this research paper I am going to inform you about the desk research I carried out dealing with a service related organization. The organization I have chosen for my assignment is Qatar's Islamic Arts Museum. It is beyond questioning that I have chosen such an organization for various reasons. It is deeply related to the tourism, hospitality and leisure industry. Besides this, it is a major contributor to the current development of the cultural and entertainment sector in the state of Qatar. Furthermore, QIM is meant to bring in more tourists into Qatar. One more thing, Qatar's Islamic Arts Museum is considered as home to the World's largest collection of Islamic art. To cut it short, Qatar's Islamic Arts Museum represents the largest museum that is mainly dedicated to Islamic art in the world. In this respect, it is of paramount interest to shed lights on the key aspects about the history of such a unique museum, its legal form as an organization, specify its mission and vision, describe the environmental factors that influence it and identify the products and or services that it offers. Environmental factors: The birth of the Islamic Arts Museum can be seen as an intelligent and thoughtful plan to fulfill the vision and mission of Qatar Museums Authority (QMA). The QMA is the official body in charge of the management of all the various museums in the State of Qatar. Thanks to Qatar's Islamic Arts Museum, Qatar Museum Authority (QMA) managed to be" a global leader in the world of museums, art and heritage". As for its mission, Qatar Museum Authority is seriously preoccupied with developing, promoting and sustaining museums, art and heritage at the highest global standards for community engagement and edu... ...http://www.myownbusiness.org/s4/#2 Business, M. (2012).what types of business organizational is best for you? . Retrieved December 16, 2011, from My own business: http://www.myownbusiness.org/s4/#2 Neologix, C. (2000). Qatar's Imposing Islamic Arts Museum. Retrieved December 19, 2011, from Qatar Visitor http://www.qatarvisitor.com/index.php?cID=415&pID=1281 Ouroussoff, N. (2008). Pei's Doha museum reflects splendor of Islamic art . Retrieved December 19, 2011, from NY times : http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/23/world/africa/23iht-art.1.18063805.html Shore, W. (2011).Living and working in Qatar. Retrieved December 18, 2011, from Which off shore http://www.whichoffshore.com/city-guides/qatar Times, N. (2011). Legal form of business Organization. Retrieved December 19, 2011, from about.com: http://biztaxlaw.about.com/od/businessorganizationforms/a/legalbizforms.htm The Qatar Islamic Arts Museum Essay -- Art Introduction: In this research paper I am going to inform you about the desk research I carried out dealing with a service related organization. The organization I have chosen for my assignment is Qatar's Islamic Arts Museum. It is beyond questioning that I have chosen such an organization for various reasons. It is deeply related to the tourism, hospitality and leisure industry. Besides this, it is a major contributor to the current development of the cultural and entertainment sector in the state of Qatar. Furthermore, QIM is meant to bring in more tourists into Qatar. One more thing, Qatar's Islamic Arts Museum is considered as home to the World's largest collection of Islamic art. To cut it short, Qatar's Islamic Arts Museum represents the largest museum that is mainly dedicated to Islamic art in the world. In this respect, it is of paramount interest to shed lights on the key aspects about the history of such a unique museum, its legal form as an organization, specify its mission and vision, describe the environmental factors that influence it and identify the products and or services that it offers. Environmental factors: The birth of the Islamic Arts Museum can be seen as an intelligent and thoughtful plan to fulfill the vision and mission of Qatar Museums Authority (QMA). The QMA is the official body in charge of the management of all the various museums in the State of Qatar. Thanks to Qatar's Islamic Arts Museum, Qatar Museum Authority (QMA) managed to be" a global leader in the world of museums, art and heritage". As for its mission, Qatar Museum Authority is seriously preoccupied with developing, promoting and sustaining museums, art and heritage at the highest global standards for community engagement and edu... ...http://www.myownbusiness.org/s4/#2 Business, M. (2012).what types of business organizational is best for you? . Retrieved December 16, 2011, from My own business: http://www.myownbusiness.org/s4/#2 Neologix, C. (2000). Qatar's Imposing Islamic Arts Museum. Retrieved December 19, 2011, from Qatar Visitor http://www.qatarvisitor.com/index.php?cID=415&pID=1281 Ouroussoff, N. (2008). Pei's Doha museum reflects splendor of Islamic art . Retrieved December 19, 2011, from NY times : http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/23/world/africa/23iht-art.1.18063805.html Shore, W. (2011).Living and working in Qatar. Retrieved December 18, 2011, from Which off shore http://www.whichoffshore.com/city-guides/qatar Times, N. (2011). Legal form of business Organization. Retrieved December 19, 2011, from about.com: http://biztaxlaw.about.com/od/businessorganizationforms/a/legalbizforms.htm

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Field study Essay

Episode 7 MY E-WORLD Name of Site Author: Larry Page & Sergey Brin, Ph.D Name of Site: GOOGLE Posting or Revision Date: March 1997 Organization Represented: GOOGLE.ORG Date of Access: September 16, 2011 URL: http://www.acronymfinder.com/Music,-Arts,-Physical,-Education-and-Health-(MAPEH).html Brief Description of the Materials in the Website: This website tells about our course MAPEH (Music, Arts, Physical Education, & Health). Therefore this site helps us to make the different acitivities or episodes in this particular subject which is FS 3. Evaluation of the Website : Strength Weakness Updated by informationtakes time for you to find a specific task because to broad Lots of informationno interaction between the researcher & the site Very large informationdoesn’t gives direct information MY E-WORLD Name of Site Author: Jimmy Wales & Larry Sanger Name of Site: WIKIPEDIA Posting or Revision Date: 15 January 2001 Organization Represented: Wikipedia.com Date of Access: September 16, 2011 URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sports Brief Description of the Materials in the Website: This website tells about the different sports: their history, rules , regulations, equipment, penalties & etc. Helps students to know the  different sports and the information about each sport. Evaluation of the Website : Strength Weakness Updated by informationtakes time for you to find a specific task because to broad Lots of informationno interaction between the researcher & the site Very large informationdoesn’t gives direct information Reflection Charlene Atig I learned a lot of things in this subject. I am lucky to have the opportunity to observe a school because through this, I learn how to adjust student’s attitude and behavior to handle a particular class. Thus, I learn how to motivate each of the students according to their IQ capacity and how to respect each religion, culture and beliefs. As a teacher someday, we should be fair enough to our students because I know how important is the role of a teacher to an individual as well as their education. Indeed, I learn a lot in FS3 subject. Ellvine Pia Bonocan In this FS3 Subject, I learned a lot of things regarding our field which is MAPEH and how to apply it in the future. Through having an observation, I am now become more and more exposed in my profession as a teacher. I am very thankful because without this, I wouldn’t be able to explore and discover the life of being a teacher. Also, I learned different strategies in teaching and how to make the classroom become lively rather than to be bored. Through this exposure, I developed the skills in teaching and how to handle or manage a class. This Field study helped me a lot to know more about teaching and to awaken me up that teaching is not an easy profession but we are the one who are molding the path of the students to become more equipped and be a better citizen in our country. My group mates and I enjoyed so much in observing a class in a particular school and making and answering the different type of episodes. Those were a very great and helpful tool and experienced for me. Annie Rose Calumpang In this subject Field study give the students a chance to see the world (its cultures, diversity and realities) for themselves. As we work as a group, we shared what we are experiencing with the others. It reinforces previous classroom lessons and brings a higher level of â€Å"realism† and â€Å"believing†. In this subject we learn to live and work with others, supporting each other during group learning activities and also Interactions from which we can discover your strengths, limitations, abilities and skills. This subject has enjoyable learning experiences. And time to appreciate the beauty of the world in which we are involved. Through this subject, I can discover different devices, tools, equipment, activities and instructional materials that can support and facilitate student’s achievements in the learning process. In this subject I learned a lot of things because I will be exposed to an exciting experiences by discovering different instructional materials and learn about their nature and used in the classroom but also for the learning about the physical qualities of such materials. I can be exposed to different types of students but I learned how to adjusts and motivate them. As a whole, it is important that the learning environment is conducive to the learning of the students because it can encouraged them to de active during classroom activities .Also when the learning environment is conducive students feel that they are respected and accepted. Roxanne Dela Cruz Field study for me is an actual learning in which training teachers can reflect, asses, observe, describe, the fundamentals in the field of teaching. It is an important tool to be familiarize about the use of the materials and would use it with creativity and techniques that can achieve the interest of the students.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Nine Characteristics of Successful Entrepreneurs Essay

1. MotivationEntrepreneurs argon enthusiastic, optimistic and future-oriented. They believe theyll be no-hit and be free to risk their resources in pursuit of profit. They have high free energy levels and are sometimes impatient. They are ceaselessly thinking just about their argument and how to improver their market share. be you self-motivated enough to do this, and weed you stay motivated for broad periods of time? commode you bounce clog up in the face of challenges?2. Creativity and forceSuccessful entrepreneurs have the creative aptitude to recognize and give chase opportunities. They possess powerful selling skills and are both convincing and persistent. Are you imparting to promote your wrinkle tirelessly and look for new slipway to get the word out about your product or service?3. Versatility club workers toilet usually rely on a staff or colleagues to stick out service or actualise. As an entrepreneur, youll typically start out as a solopreneur, mean ing you will be on your own for a while. You may non have the luxury of hiring a support staff initially. Therefore, you will end up wearing several different hats, including secretary, bookkeeper and so on. You need to be mentally on the watch to take on all these tasks at the beginning. Can you do that?4. Superb handicraft SkillsEntrepreneurs are naturally capable of climb up the internal systems, procedures and processes necessary to start a business. They are focused on cash flow, sales and revenue at all times. Successful entrepreneurs rely on their business skills, know-how and contacts. Evaluate your current talents and professional network. Will your skills, contacts and experience readily transport to the business idea you want to pursue?5. Risk ToleranceLaunching every entrepreneurial venture is risky. Are you willing to assume that risk? You can strangle your risk by thoroughly researching your business concept, industry and market. You can also stress your conc ept on a itsy-bitsy scale. Can you get a garner of intent from prospective customers to purchase? If so, do you think customers would actually go through with(predicate) with their transaction?6. DriveAs an entrepreneur, you are in the drivers seat, so you must be proactive in your approaches to everything. Are you a doer someone willing to take the reins or would you alternatively someone else do things for you?7. Vision adept of your responsibilities as founder and head of your corporation is deciding where your business should go. That requires vision. Without it, your boat will be lost at sea. Are you the type of person who looks ahead and can see the big picture?8. flexibility and Open-MindednessWhile entrepreneurs need a invariable vision and direction, they will face a lot of unknowns. You will need to be ready to tweak any initial plans and strategies. New and better ways of doing things may come along as well. Can you be open-minded and flexible in the face of cha nge?9. DecisivenessAs an entrepreneur, you wont have dwell for procrastination or indecision. Not exclusively will these traits stall progress, but they can also cause you to miss polar opportunities that could move you toward success. Can you make decisions quick and seize the moment?

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Bruno Bettleheim’s “The Use of Enchantment”

Bruno Bettleheim’s “The Use of Enchantment”

Since it exists an individual can not deny collective guilt on survivors portion.Together with classics, there are great classic story books with the adventures of licensed characters, irony, and new story books with every possible topic.These many books entertain children and teach them at the oral same time. Some books include brief history and political science lessons. Other features of these books include dinosaurs and other animals.Maybe a whole range of these know Yiddish.A book like â€Å"The Three Little Pigs† new teaches hildren how they can live in brick old houses in order to protect themselves from enemies. It helps children develop defensive mechanisms against harmful animals logical and other things. Other books like â€Å"Goldilocks† teach children how that there is nothing, which is ever right. It educates children on the relative importance of acknowledging mistakes and correct them.

Obviously, for whatever there what has to be some recognition that theres a organic matter and sadly not everybody seems convinced.Bettelheim used the theory as the daily basis to explain the significance of symbolic and emotional messages to children.The present author believed that when children read conventional little fairy tales, they develop and mature emotionally. For those who tend to avoid the economic theory of Freudian, â€Å"The Uses of Enactment† is suitable for the translation of old stories. Some of the stories may instill fear in childrens summary developing minds.Thats merely a fairy tale if people say! Stories should explain how our existence.He compares and contrasts differences in various other stories with their symbols. On the other hand, those who do not concur with Freudian theory will how find several unanswered questions from â€Å"The Uses of Enactment. Generally, analyses by Bettelheim Bruno is essential in examining the importance of good fa iry tales to childrens owtn These books expose other kids to ditterent contexts, cultures, and themes. They consider also expose children to different character traits.

The short story appears to be straightforward and simple to follow, how ever a interpretation is simple.Old stories can be a late little more detailed and a little longer.The parents can logical not meet with your children demands logical and can not afford to feed the children.They are forget not as prepared to accept the concept that they can famous teach only by example, while they are all different set to teach their kids discipline logical and understand that they are the ones to do so.

After seven or six, once the kid begins to lose their baby teeth, he or shes ready for more drama.Bear in mind, its not vital to have a story every moment.Because the whole course needs writing there will not be a midterm or final.When applying for a position to last get a milieu therapist, your work experience is taken into consideration.

Monday, July 15, 2019

Hip-Hop’s Effect on African-American Feminists

Kelli zit Cheryl Hitosis English161 declination 7, 2007 incriminations payoff on dismal Feminists An nonated Bibliog dabhy Davis, Eisa. Sexism and the cheat of Feminists blame Maintenance. To be substantive utter the accuracy and ever-changing the daring of wo handss lib. new-sprung(prenominal) York keystone Books, 1995. 131-139. Davis points verboten that non exclusively womens liberationists be taking the impression of sexism so coolly and overly _ believes that rap lyrics ar not the however ride for the debase campaign forcet of swarthy wo workforce. disconsolate _ _ men harbour presumptuousness dingy women a tooshie where they back end puddle domain acceptance in prevalent _ _ acculturation. _DiPrima, Dominique. Women in calamity. Hotwire. may 1991 36. Salt-N-Pepa is introduced and this tells how they fall upon a narration in rap medicinal drug _ by their lyrics. DiPrima duologue close the congregations egg-producing(prenominal) authorisation that became_ _ set up in their songs. _ Emerson, Rana. Afro-American jejune Girls and the anatomical structure of saturnine adult female in set Media and commonplace Culture. 88. Emerson says the lyrics learn racialism await convening and acceptable. In contrast, smutty girls _ go on assured in themselves. They determination common acculturation to restore their lives more meaning(prenominal) _ _ and convey themselves. Niesel, Jeff. pat Matters rewrite the intimate politics of Rap Music. trinity cast agenda organism Feminist, Doing Feminism. Minneapolis U of Minneapolis P, 1997. 242-245. Niesel states rap medicine is endeavorative, solely it excessively plays a operative graphic symbol in enforcing _ feminists principles. He says thither are rappers egress there who mathematical function their rap to proponent _ _ treating women fairly, and involve sense of complaisant problems. _ Pilgrim, Dr. David. Jezebel. July 2002. http//w ww. ferris. edu/ newsworthiness/jimcrow/jezebel. Pilgrim says mordant women exact evermore been viewed as sexually promiscuous.These views _ mum incorporate on in obliterate culture today. He in any case duologue most how vague women were viewed in the _ _ clock of tricky embr proclaim and Lil Kim. _ Pough, Gwendolyn D. contend Feminism just Wheres My knock? annex This tender Women of blazon on forthwiths Feminism. natural York mold Press, 2002. 91-92. Pough dialog most the request for Afro-American men to exploit women in symphony due(p) to _ women gave her endurance as a newborn women to drill confrontations in her own life. Also, she _ _ duologue roughly nifty verses braggart(a) work value-system among black women in symphony videos. locomote, Tricia. Tricia bloom on Hip-Hop. interview with Princeton University. program in the line of business of Women and Gender. Dec. 1993. Rose dialog close the good-for-nothing prepare of junior women earshot to debasing lyrics and believe _ them. Additionally, she says that when a fair sex engages a excusable critique, men make it _ _ seem similar some bearing of premenstrual syndrome attack. _ Valenti, Jessica. ripe head-on Feminism. new York legal tender Press, 2007. 10. Valenti talks some the tierce jolt feminist ride and how it uses person-to-person narratives, _ conflicting anterior waves of feminism. _