Saturday, August 31, 2019
Gender roles refer to the set of social, attitudinal and behavioral roles, norms and expectations that, within a definite culture, are also formally or informally required or widely measured to be socially appropriate for persons of a precise gender identity. They are constructed for a variety of genders in order to channelize their energies towards some socially intended goals, which are either frequently shared or affixed from many of the experimental differences in behaviors, attitudes and personalities, amid various genders, come naturally, a lot of of these characteristics are, either in part or wholly, socially constructed, therefore, a product of socialization experiences. Qualities of a meticulous gender identity do not need to be imposed through rules and norms, while artificial roles have to be Ã¢â¬ËenforcedÃ¢â¬â¢ on people throughout some kind of psycho-social mechanism. Gender roles of a particular sex may not always be in accordance with the normal or biological traits of that gender, and they may turn out to be too strict or constricting so as to cause in the oppression of that gender. This is because of the potential of the gender roles to manage the behavior of people that these roles have been tremendously politicized and manipulated with the ruling forces, for several millenniums now, resulting in severe oppression of every gender of humans. Gender has numerous valid definitions, but its here in reference to an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s inside sex or psychological sense of being a male or female irrespective of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s (outer) sex identity as determining oneÃ¢â¬â¢s sexual organs. We find three major genders: masculine (inner male identity), feminine (inner female identity) and neutral (a balance of inner male and female identity). In conclusion gender roles of women have been enforced on them through force, and have thus been extra visible. Men gender roles are difficult to enforce but are indirectly enforced. References Bem, S. L. (1981). Gender schema theory: A cognitive account of sex typing. Psychological Review 352-365. Connell, Robert William: Gender and Power, Cambridge: University Press 1987.
Friday, August 30, 2019
CO2 (Carbon dioxide) is a compound composed of two carbons and one oxygen, It is a colorless and odorless gas produced both naturally and through human activities like the burning of gasoline, coal, oil, and wood. People exhale or breathe out Carbon dioxide which releases it into the air. Carbon dioxide are higher in areas with heavier industrial activities due to many factors. Factors such as the number of people present the amount of outdoor fresh air entering the area and whether combustion by-products are contaminating the indoor. are just a few of the many carbon dioxide releasers. Carbon Dioxide is a gas used by plants during photosynthesis for the production of sugars which may either be re-consumed in respiration or used as raw materials to produce polysaccharides such as starch and cellulose, proteins and other organic compounds needed for plant growth and development. Plants role is photosynthesis is extremely important because it remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and uses it to produce oxygen. Deforestation cuts down many plants, trees and forest and reduces the trees available to absorb the carbon dioxide from our planet. CO (Carbon Monoxide) is a molecule that contains one carbon atom covalently bonded to one oxygen atom and is produced from partial oxidation of carbon compounds such as in internal combustion engines. Carbon monoxide burning in air with a characteristic blue flame will produce carbon dioxide. It is extremely toxic but plays a useful role in modern technology. Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless and tasteless, yet highly toxic gas. Its molecules consist of one carbon atom covalently bonded to one oxygen atom. It is the simplest oxocarbon, and can be viewed as the anhydride of formic acid. There are two covalent bonds and a coordinate covalent bond between the oxygen and carbon atoms. In urban areas, carbon monoxide reacts photochemically with aldehydes to produce a peroxy radical which reacts with nitrogen oxide to increase ratio of NO2 to NO, thus reducing the quality of NO to available to react with ozone. It is a constituent of tobacco smoking. Through natural processes in the atmosphere, it is eventually oxidized to carbon dioxide. Carbon monoxide concentrations are both short-lived in the atmosphere and spatially variable. CH4 is known as methane, a chemical compound that is also the simplest alkane and the principal component of natural gas. Methane is known to be a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential of 72 averaged over a period of 20 years. Methane is oxidized in the atmosphere thus, producing carbon dioxide and water. The EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s crust contains huge amounts of methane. Large amounts of methane are produced anaerobically by methanogenesis. Other sources include mud volcanoes, which are connected with deep geological faults, and livestock, primarily cows. Methane is used for electrical generations by being burned as a fuel in a gas turbine or steam boiler. Methane is also used as a vehicle fuel in the form of compressed natural gas and is claimed to be more environmentally friendly that fossil fuels such as gasoline and petroleum. Answer 2: Area =1000 1000 x 0. 625 gallon/inch x 0. 3 inch = 187. 5 gallons/ Rain = 0. 3 inches 0. 625 gallon/inch Answer 3: Ecosystem services are fundamental to human life. They not only help promote economic benefits but offer the protection of human health and safety. One ecosystem service essential for human life is fresh water. Fresh water is a source of supply that does not have technological substitute for at this time. There may be some water purification processes but it does not replace the need for replenishment of fresh water. The key to maintaining water purification services is to protect and restore the ecosystems that provide these services. The economic cost of this service is priceless in terms of money. Answer 4: Biogeochemical cycles are often disrupted by human activities such as cultivation of land to grow annual crops disrupts the nutrient balance in the soil. This results in the nutrients being removed from the area as the plants are being shipped off for food and the straw is removed for other purposes. Plant material then breaks down and farmers replenish the removed nutrients by adding fertilizer to the soil Ã¢â¬â further disrupting the biogeochemical cycle. Logging is another way that disrupts biological chemical by reducing the amount of oxygen in the air and allow gave room for the buildup of carbon monoxide. When logging occurs, what happen is that millions of trees and plants are removed from the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere making them unable to convert the carbon monoxide in the air into oxygen, thus, allowing carbon monoxide build up as well as reducing the overall amount of oxygen in the atmosphere. In order to help stop this disruption, we must find a way to protect the few natural land that we have left from the destruction of farming and logging by not being wasteful of the resources that are available to us and to make it a responsibility to recycling paper product as a part of our lifestyle. References: Raven, Peter H. , & Johnson, George B. (2002). Biology. Boston. McGraw Hill.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Toxicological poisoning - Essay Example The potential of carbon monoxide for toxicological poisoning is manifested when it is inhaled by members of the household. The harmful effect caused by the inhalation of carbon monoxide is that these toxic chemical compounds combines with the hemoglobin in the blood, thus preventing the body from absorbing oxygen and the adverse result is asphyxiation. The treatment of asphyxiation is to make use of artificial respiration to prevent the patient from dying (Klaasen, 2001). Dishwashing liquids are usually in the kitchen and are used for washing utensils. These dishwashing liquids are actually toxic in nature and are poisonous when mistakenly swallowed. In order to prevent people from mistakenly swallowing these dishwashing liquids, they should be put in their right containers. The utensils that are washed with these dishwashing liquids should also be properly rinsed with water in order to remove any sign of the dishwashing liquids from them. These precautions would go a long way in red ucing the harmful effects caused by swallowing these dishwashing liquids. Note that people that mistakenly swallow these dishwashing liquids usually complain of stomach cramps and other stomach related illnesses. In order to reduce the effect of swallowing these dishwashing liquids, one should use purgatives (Klaasen, 2001). Laundry detergents as the name implies are chemical substances that are used for laundry purposes.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Tourism Industry - Case Study Example The second chapter reviews the relationship between environment and tourism as well as its implications to TUI. The third chapter analyzes the performance of TUI and it's those features that contributed to achieve the No.1 position in tourism and shipping industry. It further explains the key unmatchable factors that have made TUI far ahead of its market competitors. In the end the current structural changes in different business fields are discussed and TUI's response to these changes with its corporate strategies and business models. In order to complete this paper, a meticulous research has been done on available information on the subject of tourism and contribution of TUI in this field. A variety of case studies and few books and online journals were reviewed. Online available resources are given special precedence than available library books because there is no specific book available about a particular tourism company. It is the biggest limitations of this research that in co mparison to available web-based resources, hard copy books are not readily available specifically about TUI. TUI is an abbreviation of Touristik Union International that was established in 1968. As Preussag AG, it remained a renowned organization in transportation and industrial sector till 2001 when it became a 100% subsidiary of Preussag AG. In next ear, Preussag AG was transformed into TUI AG. During next few year
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Theory of Cognitive Dissonance & apply it on abortion in USA.2 - Research Paper Example (Chasek, 2010) Further understanding needs to be established on the theory to bring out the idea that this is a theory that is basically adopted form social psychology. From the title, individuals with basic knowledge on Psychology can draw out the conclusion that that cognitive stands for the mind or the process of thinking while dissonance stands for conflict or inconsistency. From this point it is safe to say that cognitive dissonance comes as a result of psychological conflict arising from upholding two or more parallel beliefs that work in an incompatible mode. This theory has been embraced by the experts in many fields by molding it to fit into their own requirements. An example is in the field of communication alongside various other disciplines. . (McLeod, 2008). This theory is quite the famous one because it manages to displace all forms of previous engagements in form of conditioning by completely viewing as rather purposeful decision makers by majorly opting to balance the beliefs. The mind should therefore be conditioned in such a way that in case one is presented with decision making situations that create dissonance, then one is supposed to apply strategies of dissonance reduction so as to basically regain relevant equilibrium mostly in situations whereby the decision making would have great effect on the self esteem of the individual involved. (Barker, 2003) The theory of dissonance applies in various situations that involve the change of attitude and its formation. The theory has the capability of manipulating individuals to embrace certain behaviors so as to influence the people to change their own attitudes. This quality makes the theory and the thoughts around it relevant for problem solving and decision making. A real life situation as an example is a situation whereby a driver holds on to the beliefs that he does not require seat belts when driving. Then the reality dawns on him when he gets the news that a friend had an accident and lost h is life simply because he had no seat belt on. The dissonance of this driver may possibly be reduced by actually completely altering behavior and hence starting to apply the use of the seat belt because he now finds it necessary to avoid impending implications that may rise if he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t use it. The driver can also embrace the idea that he needs to find an alternative since his hatred for the seat belts in general could still be outstanding. Then he may seek relevant information on available alternatives in the market and fall for the airbags. Therefore the impetus to actually bring dissonance down majorly relies on the amount or magnitude of the held dissonance (McLeod, 2008). The dissonance in us is mostly always important and stronger when we have a belief about something that we hold dear but we go ahead and do something completely parallel to that belief. An example is when we believe that somebody is good, the he goes on to do something that is really bad, then what we have in the mind is cognitive dissonance that results in the kind of discomfort we feel from the entire idea. Dissonance will increase perpendicularly with the level of importance that we give to a certain subject, the strength by which the two conflicting feelings or thought feel the parallel forces against each
Monday, August 26, 2019
To what extent do historians own history Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words
To what extent do historians own history - Essay Example While one may often mistakenly assume that history is actually in black and white, it is quite clear that when historians write down history, they do mainly according to the various social practices and policies of the country at the time (2002). It is often up to the historians to help in determining the extent to which history will ultimately be rewritten (Foner, 2002). Oscar Wilde is credited as having once said that the one duty of the persons that happen to own history is to ensure that they rewrite it. Arguably, it has been claimed that modern historians have undertaken to fulfilling this aspect of their work a little too well. This is exemplified by the fact that in the modern day society, there is a large number of people who as opposed to celebrating the rather exciting anniversary of ColumbusÃ¢â¬â¢ discovery of the American continent, instead choose to mourn Columbus Day by choosing to remember it as a genocidal invasion of the continent by large numbers of White Europeans (Marsh 61). In contrast to the branding of murderer by some modern day historians, the popular perception of Columbus was quite different a hundred years ago when during the 400th celebration of ColumbusÃ¢â¬â¢ arrival in the New World, Presid ent Benjamin Harrison paid tribute to Columbus and referred to his as the pioneer of both enlightenment and progression. In a similar vein, the American Indians who had previously been portrayed as being an extremely cruel and savage race, have now undergone a historical reprisal that has seen them often being pictured as being a being an extremely peaceful people that strive to live in constantly harmony with their natural environment. In light of this change in the manner in which the past is recounted, Foner (2002) points out that although historical truths do happen to exist, it is often seen that the most difficult
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Management Accounting (I WILL UPLOAD THE SUBJECT) - Assignment Example Under the following sections, each of the budget and projected financial statements are briefly discussed along with the assumptions taken to complete these projections. Assumptions 1. There are two types of raw materials to produce the final product named as Kungfu and Jodu respectively. 2. As far as the labour is concerned, two types of labour, is used according to their level of skills namely as skilled and non-skilled labour. 3. The company has invested in two types of capital expenditures such as furniture and equipment. Other non-current assets are acquired on rentals by the company. 4. Two selling prices are set by the company for first and last six months of the year such that the selling price for first six months is set to be ?300 and for the last six months, it is set as ?320 per unit. 5. For material and labour prices, it is assumed that these prices will remain same in the whole year. 6. For overheads, it is assumed that they are going to be 60% of the labour cost. 7. Cl osing stock is estimated to be 15% of the sales volume of the upcoming month. 8. Collection for sales is to be completed in such a manner that around 70% of the sales are to be obtained in the month of sales whereas the remainder of the collection is going to be completed in the next month. 9. For purchases, the company has estimated that around 80% of the purchases are going to be made in their corresponding months whereas the remaining amount will be paid in the next month. 10. For other expenses like labour and overheads, the payments are to be made the moment they arise. 11. Around ?2,500 is going to be taken out in the form of drawings every month by the owners. 12. Income tax rate is going to be applied at 30% of the income before tax. 13. The rate of depreciation is set to be 30% with the straight-line method Discussion Unit Cost The unit cost of the product Ã¢â¬Å"KarateÃ¢â¬ consists of three basic ingredients such as direct material cost, direct labour cost and overheads (Kinney and Raiborn, 2009). The total unit cost of Karate is expected to be ?221. If this per unit cost is split in all three components, direct material consumes around ?165, direct labour consumes around ?35 and overheads constitutes around ?21. Budgets The product budgeting purpose is served with the preparation of six kinds of budgets namely as Fixed Expenditure, Sales, Purchases, Production, Direct Labour, and Cash Budget. Comprehensive figures are accounted for the preparation of these budgets such that each budget consists of, not only having the annual figures but also monthly figures. Since this is the first year of the operations of the business, therefore, it is assumed that the start-up capital of the business is ?50,000. The following discussion takes into account each budget briefly: The fixed expenditure budget consists of ?50,000 cumulatively such that the business has planned to spend ?45,000 at the start and ?5,000 after six months of the start of the business. Fo r furniture, ?10,000 amount is reserved and for equipment, ?40,000 will be used. As far as the sales budget is concerned, 300 units are anticipated for the sale purpose in the 1st three months, followed by 365 units in the next six months and in the last quarter, the sales unit are expected to be 400 units. The
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Winning Marketing campaign for ZARA Jacket - Essay Example During the initial phase of pre-launch, ZARA will try to generate curiosity among the target market so that they are looking forward to get involved in activities arrange by the brand. In order to inform the customers about the latest offering, advertisements will be placed in leading magazines and Television channels. Moreover, E-marketing will be done so that the online customer base can be provided with the appealing offerings. Finally, the concert will be arranged after a month of the launch so that all other brands of Inditex are promoted simultaneously. Also, customerÃ¢â¬â¢s feedback will be sought to be assured that the unique product meets their expectations effectively. The concept of ZARA belongs to Ã¢â¬ËInditexÃ¢â¬â¢ Group, established by the company in year 1975 by Ortega Gaona in A Caruna, Spain. The group is recognised globally for offering eight store formats for the shoppers i.e. ZARA, Pull & Bear, Stradivarius, ZARA Home, Uterque, Massimo Dutti, Oysho and Bershka (Inditex, 2013a). The competitive edge of the group lies in its differentiated business model which has two cornerstones i.e. flexibility and innovation (Inditex, 2013b). The success of the marketing campaign is highly dependent on tools utilised by well-known experts for conveying the right message (Keller, 2012) and persuading them to trying out the new offering instantly (Kotler & Keller, 2012). Although ZARA has been able to attract a large number of customers through prevailing marketing tactic but it is considering other options as well. As the fashion industry is getting competitive due to increasing number of companies and cost effective opportunities for apparel production (Pani & Sharma, 2012), it has become imperative for the companies to employ the best measures for strengthening their stakes (Hemphill & Suk, 2009). Considering the global fashion industry, it is observed that the leading brands are making effective use of four marketing practises i.e. Television
Friday, August 23, 2019
Body language within the counselling forum and its implications - Thesis Example What cues are and how researchers have thrashed out issues in counseling have been discussed. The significance of body language and how interpretations are made by the counselor are also discussed. The counselling profession for exceptional mental health needs shows an emerging trend on a global scale which has given shape to international counselling (Hohenshil 2010 p.3). Though found only in the US at one point of time, counselling has spread its wings to an international level. Developing tailored counselling programs is a challenge in itself. Political orientation does not influence this practice of counselling. Whatever the politics of a region, the positive mental health is a priceless social and economic asset (Hohenshil 2010 p 3). Advanced counseling systems with professional associations, armed with good credentials, highly qualified trained counsellors and unique counselling programs which produce the maximum positive results are a blessing to a nation. The multi-cultural diversity would require that programs are modified according to the needs of the local community. Diversity is seen in the national histories, social orientation (whether collectivistic or individua listic) and in different economic situations and political settings (Hohenshil 2010 p 3). Every field of practice has been developed to include counselling. Schools have counselling for their children who need help when they become backward in studies or have some issues with teachers and other students. Professional counsellors may need to have training if they have to cope with new situations. The counselling profession is in a different developmental stage in different countries. Progress is occurring at a fast pace (Hohenshil 2010 p 3). Body language or nonverbal communication constitutes a major component of counseling. Studying nonverbal communication is simulated to a treasure hunt without a map or tools
Planning for and Recruiting Human Resources - Research Paper Example ilable for the companies to fill the job vacancies if the H-2B visas prove inefficient, recommend the most efficient option and identify additional recruiting strategies. These companies can target local students who undertake careers related to the company activity. This motivates workers because they can enhance their career as well as earn (Engardio, 2006). Companies can also fill the job positions with workers with J-1 visa type. Most students from developing countries are looking for better paying jobs in developed countries such as the U.S. This is contrary to American students that prefer internships for the advancement of their careers over summer jobs. Additionally, the companies can outsource for Q-1 visa workers. This will provide opportunities for foreign nationals to work in the companies for 15 months after which the visa will expire. However, these workers may not be efficient to the companies because the Visas can only be renewed after workers have stayed for one year after the expiry. The best alternative strategy that companies can adopt is targeting international workers under Q-1 visas. These forms of visas allow workers to spend longer working periods in the host nation. This offers companies an opportunity to retain the most productive employees for longer periods, thereby improving efficiency. The longer visa life allows workers to attain the required experience leading to higher performance. The fixed employment period will also boost the worker morale because most of them will yearn to maximally utilize this period to achieve maximum benefits (Noe et al., 2009). This improves on productivity. The companies can also reduce costs related to frequent hiring of new seasonal workers. This is because Q-1 workers can even be available to serve for two peak periods before the visa expires. However, the requirement that the visa is only renewable after one year may inconvenience employers. High Sierra pools can rehire the past rejected
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Children of a Lesser God Essay This film is based on a stage play of the same title. It tells about James Leeds, a man who teaches children with special needs in a school for the deaf and those who are hard of hearing. He is a devoted and inventive teacher who shows a deep compassion for his students, applying teaching methods he could think of just to draw out the interest of his students to learn, do more and accomplish things to the fullest of their capacity. James meets and falls in love with Sarah Norman, a beautiful woman who works for the same school and has been deaf since she was a baby. At first Sarah avoids James until he is able to draw her out from her shell and eventually he is able to convince her to live together. Sarah is full of bitterness, hurt and other emotional scars over the mistreatment she experienced while she was growing up because of her impairment and this jeopardizes their relationship. Sarah has to come to terms with her personal issues and needs to feel that she is an independent woman. In due course, they are able to settle things amidst the difficulties they come across in communication. The movie made me realize the significance of communication among people and people who have communication disorders should be given special attention in order for them to be heard. Even individuals who are fully capacitated physically have a hard time in getting messages understood. I just hope that there will be more teachers like James Leeds in this world who loves what he does and changes the lives of other people. The movie, which focuses mostly on the hearing impaired, is very much relevant to this course. It gives us the glimpse of how they live and struggle to be understood and to understand others. It portrays the complexity of their lives and helps us appreciate how difficult things are for them and moves us to do something for them. WORKS CITED Children of a Lesser God. Dir. Randa Haines. Perfs. William Hurt, Marlee Matlin, Piper Laurie, Phillip Bosco. VCD. Paramount Pictures, 1986.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Role of Marriage in Society Culture is defined as the dynamic system of rules established by groups (Matsumoto Juang, p. 10). Marriage is one of the norms established by people, which reflect attitude, beliefs and behaviors. Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with communal or religious acknowledgment which is often created as an agreement. Marriage is rooted effectually in almost every society except where common law partners are recognized. It is the bond that exclusively consents a sexual relationship, especially in collectivist countries where sex before marriage is considered a sin, likewise some societies, especially collectivist countries also require official approval of religious or civil body. Across cultures, the anatomies of ancestral standards are different. Beliefs of what comprises a family are based on culture, dynamics, assets, and ethics. In many cultures, extended family which includes married couples staying in the home of their parents is a form of showing love and respect for exampl e in Pakistan; marriage is also basis for having children in those societies. Since issues like fornication and having children outside of marriage is considered taboo so to grow a family in collectivist cultures getting married is must. Our attributions, interpersonal and romantic relationships and group behaviors are all influenced by the culture we live in thus resulting in the attitudes we have towards a specific actions we take. Support gap, depression and illness including marital satisfaction, communication pattern and attitudes towards marriage, they all differ across cultures and will be discussed. Attitude towards marriage being the most important one, because the whole idea of relationship relies on the individuals perspective and preferences. It depends on the individual to see it as a social foundation which administer structure, support, growth and stability or see it as an economic arrangement or as a part of religious institution. The western society might pay more importance to love whereas collectivist cultures might see as an obligatory and as a religious foundation to have family. Spousal Social Support: Social support for women is greatly reduced in machismo cultures (Matsumoto Juang, p. 198). The conformity and obedience are expected by women and is related to traditional gender roles that females and males have occupied; with male traditionally being in power. Such differences result in loss of support especially in cultures where women tend to get married at a young age; since getting married at an early age is a form of economic survival it is also seen as a way to guard the female gender and to administer some adherence in settings where society is under pressure for example India. The support a married couple gets from their significant partner is substantial, because support from outside the marriage does not compensate for the lack of spousal support (Xu Burleson). Belle (1982) termed support gap hypothesis which is that women receive less support from their husband compared to men even though the study Belle did was in 1980 and it has been almost a decade, the study done by Xu and Burleson indicates that social change in sex role relations has not changed. The different kinds of support received are emotional support, esteem support, network support, tangible support and informational support. Research indicates that men are less comfortable and less skilled in discussing distressed emotional state (Burda Vaux 1987; Saurer Eisler, 1990; Trobst, Collins Embree, 1994). In Cross Cultural comparison of social support, Mortneson (1999) found that members of the American individualistic cultures viewed seeking of social support as more appropriate means of coping with problems than did members of the Chinese collectivist cultures. American individualists also rated the provision of emotional support as more appropriate form of emotional support than did Chinese Collectivists. Study done by Xu and Burleson, included 100 native born Americans and 102 native born Chinese; 45% of the sample were between 18-24 yrs of age and not exceeding 33 years. All participants were recently married i.e. not more than 5 years. The study tried to obtain desired and experienced levels of spousal support for the five types of social support (emotional, esteem, network, informational and tangible). Participants also responded to demographic questions that provided information on age, sex, race, national origin, length of time they had known their spouse and the time they have been married. The results indicated a vast difference between Chinese support system vs. American support system; Chinese men reported getting more esteem and network support from their spouse than Chinese women versus American women who experienced higher level of support from their spouse than did men. Sex differences were found amongst Chinese and American women, both face a support gap but Chinese wom en face an additional gap with respect to network support. The results provided Cross-cultural corroboration for the existence of support gaps, i.e. the less network support for Chinese wives that is because Chinese wives were reliant on their husbands for social contacts outside their home. Chinese also reported in getting more information support than did Americans, which could arise from Individualism-Collectivism; a cultural factor. Americans view intimate relationship in terms of personal affect changes whereas Chinese in terms of connection with community. American men reported getting low level of spousal support than Chinese men that is because in traditional value system, wives have an obligation to support the egos and social connections of their husbands and husbands have lesser responsibility. Results indicate that marriage remains more influenced by traditional values among Chinese men than Americans. Depression and Illness including Marital Satisfaction across Cultures In collectivist societies, marriage is the central reality of a womans life and the blue print on which her life depends. Epidemiological studies confirm the special vulnerability of women, especially married women, in South Asia (Johnson Johnson, 2001). High rates of domestic violence (Jejeebhoy, 1998); female illiteracy, malnutrition, anemia and maternal mortality are major public health problems (Buckshee, 1997). Psychiatric epidemiological studies consistently identify high rates of depression and other neurotic illnesses in women and the gender ratio of these disorders on the subcontinent is higher than the gender ratio in the West (Mumford et al., 1996). Among married women in Pakistan, especially among newly married women, attempted suicide (Khan Reza, 1998) and death rates from murder and suicide are higher than in are higher than in many other societies and are usually associated with in-law conflicts, especially dowry disputes (Kumar, 2004). Smaller scale studies of menta l health and illness have found that a variety of disorders such as depression and post-partum depression were strongly associated with marital problems, particularly maltreatment by husband or in-laws (Patel et al., 2002; Ulrich, 1987). Women immigrants report higher rates of depression and dysphoria than Native American women (Karasz, 2005). A study of traditional South Asian immigrant women and white European American women found that European American women viewed depressive symptoms as the result of personality structures shaped by childhood experiences, or by patho-physiological processes such as serotonin deficiency or hormonal imbalance. South Asian women, by contrast, viewed depressive illness as a normal emotional reaction to severe situational stress, especially marital distress, and to the vulnerabilities associated with womens gender roles (Karasz, 2005). The present study by Karasz examines how women understand the link of marital family problems and a wide range of health problems by examining their conceptual representations of the causal relationship between marriage roles, health and illness. Using qualitative methods and a model of illness representation from health psychology literature, 35 traditional South Asian immigrant women living in New York City were interviewed. Results indicated that problems associated with marriage roles, including marital and marital family conflict, domestic overwork and isolation were viewed as extremely serious and were associated conceptually with a variety of health problems. In another study done by Qadir, De Silva, Prince and Khan, tested the applicability of marital satisfaction scales developed in the West for use in Pakistan. The results indicate that, contrary to cultural beliefs regarding marriage, most women expressed the need to be satisfied within marriage, which was found to be extremely low because of variety of reasons such as living in an extended family background and low spousal support. Communication Patterns Rehman and Munroe did a study and used cross-cultural methodology to examine the demand-withdraw pattern of marital communication. In Western countries, women make more demands, whereas men are more likely to withdraw. This advanced marital structure hypothesis suggests that this pattern can be altered by gender roles and beliefs, particularly in traditional marriages (Rehman Munroe, 2006). To test such hypotheses, the authors conducted an observational study of marital communication across very different cultures, with varying levels of patriarchy (i.e., 50 White American couples, 52 Pakistani couples in Pakistan, and 48 immigrant Pakistani couples in America). A questionnaire was used to gather demographic information, such as age and education. The Short Marital Adjustment Test (SMAT; Locke Wallace, 1959); a standard measure of marital adjustment with well-established psychometric properties was the measure of marital satisfaction level. The Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS; Straus, 1979); was used to screen out violent couples. Modified General Ethnicity Questionnaire (GEQ; Tsai, Ying, Lee, 2000); only the immigrant couples completed this measure of acculturation to U.S. culture. Unable to find acculturation measures designed for The Desired Changes Questionnaire; the DCQ was used to choose topics for each couple to discuss during their marital interactions. Twenty areas are listed (e.g., Get together with my friends).3 For each area, spouses rated how much they wanted their partner to change (1- no change; 7- much more); they then listed at least two additional issues on which they wanted partner change and rank ordered their three most important issues. Each couple was also asked to discuss for 7.5 minutes, which were later coded. Across cultures, demand-withdraw communication was related to marital distress, extending previous findings to new groups. The results for demanding behaviors showed that Pakistani wives were significantly more likely to engage in unassertive demands than were American wives, whereas American wives were significantly more likely to use aggressive demands than were Pakistani wives. In addition, among Pakistani and immigrant couples, husbands were significantly more likely than were wives to use aggressive demands, whereas American wives were significantly more likely to use aggressive demands than were American husbands. There was a trend for American husbands to be more likely to withdraw than their wives. In contrast, in the Pakistani group, wives were significantly more likely to withdraw than were husbands. In addition, Pakistani and immigrant wives were significantly more likely to withdraw than were American wives, whereas American husbands were significantly more likely to with draw than were Pakistani husbands. Pakistani and immigrant wives showed increased withdrawal and made more unassertive demands, whereas Pakistani and immigrant husbands withdrew less and made more aggressive demands. Attitudes towards Marriage Attitude is one of the definitions in Jungs Chapter XI of Psychological Types. Jungs description of attitude is a readiness of the psyche to act or react in a certain way (Jung,  1971:par. 687). One of the types of attitudes Jung describes is, rational attitude, which is reason as an attitude (Jung,  1971: par. 785). Rational attitude is subdivided into thinking and feeling and irrational is subdivided into sensing and intuition. Attitude towards marriage involves, readiness to act in a certain way, whether you are capable of considering it rationally or irrationally. Why an individual chooses to get married? (voluntarily and involuntarily) differs across cultures. In collectivist cultures, it is seen as the only way of having family, fornication is not only considered a sin but also an individual can be severely punished which can lead to his/her death; some countries also have laws protecting it for example Saudi Arabia. Higgins, Zheng, Liu and Sun did a study to compare the attitude towards marriage amongst people living in China (collective culture) and United Kingdom (individualistic culture). The British sample consisted of 338 students and the Chinese sample consisted of 505 students. A questionnaire was devised by Chinese and English researchers working together. Respondent cultural differences in response style were noted (Higgins, Zheng, Liu Sun, 2002). According to Triandis, Brislin, and Hui (1988), people who belong to collectivist, group-oriented societies are more likely to value harmony, face-saving, modesty, and moderation and this may manifest itself in neutral answers to attitude scales. Respondents were asked for their opinion using a 5-point Likert scale. In this study, students were asked for their general attitude to sex before marriage. A total of 46.3% of Chinese men and 41.2% of Chinese women gave neutral answers, a higher percentage of Chinese female students (46.9%) were aga inst sex before marriage than were Chinese male students (29.9%). The next statements concerned the connection between premarital sex and marriage. Most British students (85.2% men, 91.3% women) disagreed with A couple who have had sexual intercourse before marriage ought to marry each other, whereas only a few Chinese (12.9% men, 11.4% women) disagreed. The belief that sex is designed for marriage is still firmly held by many Chinese people and exerts a strong influence on their attitudes (Higgins, Zheng, Liu Sun, 2002). When asked about their willingness to marry a partner who had had sex with somebody else, over half of the British respondents (54.0% men, 50.6% women) did not seem to worry about their partners previous sexual experience whereas their Chinese counterparts (34.0% men, 36.5% women) appeared to be less agreeable to the idea. 87.1% male and female 94.3% students were against freedom to have lovers within marriage. This attitude was also prevalent among the Chinese sample, with 65.6% of men and 72.5% of women against extramarital lovers, this study showed that these male-superior norms still exist in the U.K. sample but are more prominent in the Chinese sample (Higgins, Zheng, Liu Sun, 2002). Culture exerts a strong influence on peoples attitudes to love, marriage, and sex. People from a more traditional society (e.g. China) have more consensus about the gender roles of men and women; adhere more to traditional morality and values; and are less open about sexual freedom (Higgins, Zheng, Liu Sun, 2002). Hojat, Shapurian, Shafeyhain and Parsi conducted a study amongst 160 Iranian immigrants in the US in 2000. The immigrants were between 20 -50 years of age, questionnaires were given which included 25 questions regarding attitude towards marriage and relationship. Results showed that Iranian immigrant men were more likely than female partners to view premarital sex, marriage and family from a traditional point of view. Another interesting study done by Wiesel and Krenawi consisted of 150 participants of different cultural backgrounds i.e. 29 were Druze, 32 were Muslims and 33 were Christians; 44 were women and 50 were men with a mean age of 34. The questionnaires were designed to reveal attitudes toward love, the marriage expectation scale, potency scale, which will reveal the control of things, and mate selection scale which revealed how the person took initiative in getting married (love or arranged). Results indicated Muslims saw love as less important for marital quality than did Druze and Christians, Muslims more than other groups correlated independent decision making with marital quality, attitude toward love and marital quality were weakly correlated among Muslims, the necessity to beget off spring and unity between families were high amongst Muslims than other groups suggesting what might keep the families together in the absence of love. The results also suggested that arranged marriages are negatively associated with marital satisfaction and low level of marital satisfaction was related with low level of education. Discussion Through a variety of perceptions, one develops an exclusive analogue of what marriage is; and the ancillary ideals concerning marriage. My mother always said that successful marriage depends on two things: finding the right person and being the right person. Since I am a Muslim, I will give several quotations from Quran; which I support as my belief and my idea of a perfect family and what a perfect husband and wife should be like. Though I must admit with time, I have come to realize that to be perfect; one must have to sacrifice a lot and since marriage is a two way street one has to give a lot in order to get anything. In Islam, marriage is treated as half-faith. When a servant of Allah marries, he has completed half of his religious obligations, and he must fear Allah in order to complete the second half (al-Baihaqi). Prophet Muhammad has also said, Marriage is part of my *Sunnah, whoever runs away from my path is not from among us. Husbands and wives are compared as garments to each other (al-Quran 2:187) Marriage gives tranquility (al-Quran 30:21) of mind in the spouses. Allah has prescribed marriage as the only way for conjugal relationship and family life in human society (al-Quran 2:221, 5:5, 24:33). With enough being said of the significance of marriage in Islam, its a shame to see that Muslim women face higher suicidal rate than men in Pakistan (Khan Reza, 1998). Most marriages in Pakistan are arranged by parents and other elders of family, with the woman having little or no say in the selection of her partner. Premarital meetings between couples are rare. Many couples meet each other for the first time on their wedding night. Newly married couples share the house with the grooms family, having little time or space of their own. Once married, a woman is under increasing pressure from her in-laws as well as her own family to have children as soon as possible, preferably in the first year. If for some reason the woman cannot have children, the threat of divorce or the husband taking on a second wife (allowed in Islam) is not uncommon. The divorce rate in Pakistan is quite low 0.3 per 1000 population (Encyclopedia Britannica, 1996, p. 686) but this does not reflect the true state of marriages. There is considerable stigma to divorce, especially for the woman. In addition, few women work outside their homes or have jobs that give them economic independence. Because most of the South Asian and Middle Eastern countries give high power to men, the spousal support is something that men living in these countries expect from women. Being a housewife, taking care of kids and most of all thinking of women as inferior is something common amongst these men. Because the families live together, there is not privacy, which gives rise to poor communication amongst married couples. My marriage was an arranged, it wasnt that my parents didnt ask me of my approval; or if I didnt get a chance to talk to my husband, before getting married, that is something that a women in Islam has the right to do and people; who are uneducated living in impoverished societies, deprive women of these right which gives rise to many social and marital problems. I must admit though, that living in an extended joined family, gave my husband and me little or no time for us, our life was going around in circles to which I always thought was no ending. But, being educated and having a liberal thinking we always made sure there was at least if not all, some privacy left, some matters that only me and my husband would discuss behind closed doors. While doing research for this paper, I sadly have to confess that women living in Asian or Middle eastern countries do suffer more, which didnt come to me as a surprise because Ive lived in Pakistan and have seen it all, but my question and concer n was who will ever put a stop to all this nonsense?. Sadly, women is a victim in these countries but women are also who are perpetuating these hatred and violence in the household. A woman can take many forms, she can be a daughter, a mother in law, a sister in law, a wife, an aunt etc. most importantly she is the one who raises a child to be the kind of person she wants to see him as; unfortunately in countries like Pakistan and India, it is the woman (mother in law) who forces their child to be stern and harsh to their wives, I think its because of the fact that they cant stand the undivided attention of their sons or maybe they think keeping a women under control will only bring out the best for their sons. Who will ever think of these women who are ignored?
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Evolution of Female Nude Figures in Art Nudity in art as well as the human form combined can be traced through out all the eras in art starting from pre-historic times and still being seen in todays art, recently in photography as well. The nude figure in art has generally reflected, with few exceptions, social standards of aesthetics as well as morality of the certain time period in the painting, sculpture and more recently photography. Just as in human history the human nude figure has been one of the principle subjects in art history for artists. The nude figure has been represented on pre-historic statues and paintings throughout all eras since. The male nude was more commonly used in the start, especially in ancient Greece. Today society and their morality, values and outlook on life has evolved and likewise so has the female nude in art, lately to be more highly represented and regarded. Today, unlike in the past many cultures approve of nudity in art even when they dont approve of actual nudity. For example, even an art gallery which exhibits nude paintings will typically not accept nudity of a visitor. Just like the female nude figure has evolved throughout art history due to social, political and religious influences so has all art through the years. Evolution is part of life and so is art, thus art has evolved through the and just like evolution influences bring upon changes in art, it is safe to say that art influences graphic, interior architectural and other design throughout the eras. The evolution of the female nude figure throughout art history The nude figure may be absent in Egyptian, Persian, and Etruscan art but definitely not from Greek art. The Greeks seemed to embrace it, when it came to the male figure that is. The nude standing male figure in art first became popular in Ancient Greece sculpture art. This sculpture was associating the male figure with moral excellence and athletic power. Women however where seen in a different way when it came to nudity. The female figure was associated with divinity of procreation. For almost five centuries it was said that the Greeks preferred to see a female figure clothed. In the 4th century BCE sculptor Praxelitis carved Fig.1 (Knidian Aphrodite,) a naked Aphrodite. This established a new artistic tradition of the nude female form. This sculpture was not like the exaggerated fertility figurines from the Middle East but was sculptured using idealized size and proportion that were based on mathematical ratios. Here the female nude has a self-protective pose that adds to her modesty. This is seen through the way she is holding her hand and covering her sexual organ. This sculpture was created to portray the ideal version of the Greek female nude. This female nude was also designed to appeal to the viewers senses as well as his mind. This way of portraying the female nude figure was later adopted by Hellenistic Greco-Roman art and later discarded during the Pax Romana era. Some of the finest Greek sculptors of female nude statues include: Phidias, Polykleitos, Myron Praxiteles and Hagensandrus, Polydorus and Athenodoros. It is also important to note that the Harappan culture predates Greek art by about two Millennia and was one of the first cultures to produce nude bronzes. In fig.2 (The Dancing Girl of Mohenjo-Dar o) we see a six-inch high statuette made of the lost wax method which was cast in about 2, 500 BCE. Female Nudes in Early Christian and Byzantine Art The Medieval Christian and Byzantine era, was a Christian culture from the outset. In this era the female nude figure was much diminished and nude figures were used only in rare depictions of Adam and Eve as well as the Christ-child figure. Female nudity was rarely seen in work from this era, rarely in paintings or Byzantine mosaic art. When it was shown in these rare cases it was associated with either feelings of shame and guilt or with low-brow humor. As far as Byzantine culture was concerned, the nude male and female were too directly associated with that of pagan Greek culture. Female Nudes in the Art of the Middle Ages When the era of Gothic Art eventually came along, perceptions and attitudes towards female nudeness in sculpture, paintings, stained glass and other types of art. Nudity became portrayed as sinful, this can be seen in the well known story of Adam and Eve and the Garden of Eden. Early in the Christian era emphasis was placed on chastity discouraging images of nudeness even further. However here lies a paradox with the Gothic artists (including cathedral sculptors) were permitted to alternate to the nude female figure in the name of purity, portrayed as a virginal suggestion of the body. In Fig.3 Gregor Erhart (St Mary Magdalene) we see a polychrome wooden sculpture, also known as La Belle Allemande. This figure was created by the Late Gothic wood carver Gregor Erhart in Augsburg, Germany Female Nudes in Renaissance Art During the Italian Renaissance Roman-Greco art as well as its cultural values were rediscovered. This lead to a return of the female nude to the vanguard of creativity, not only in sculpture but in fine art as well. Differing from the earlier eras in art the artists of the Italian Renaissance can be seen as figurative masters. These artists were not satisfied in restricting themselves to creating idealized nude female figures based on mathematical proportions. These artists such as Botticelli, Titian and Jacopo Robusti Tintoretto wanted to portray the natural full-bodied beauty of a woman. Seductive warmth became more important to them than the correct geometry. This change can be seen in Fig.4 Alessandro Botticelli (Birth of Venus, 1484). The figures of the women in this painting can be seen as much more voluptuous and full rounded than in the previous art eras where the proportion of the nude female figures are idealized and based on mathematic proportions. The nude female figure is naturalistically portrayed in this era. Northern Renaissance artists proved just as equally open. Jan Van Eyck was an artist from this era and had already incorporated naturalism into his paintings. Another artist from this era, Hieronymus Bosch, used female nudity to add force to his apocalyptic outlooks on that of sin as well as divine judgment. Boschs most well known painting can be seen in Fig.5 Hieronymus Bosch (The Garden of Earthly Delights, 1510). In this painting the nude figures are sinners and the downfall of human and mankind is depicted. The figures in this painting, typical to the era of renaissance, can be seen as naturalistic rather than idealized. None of these changes in the Renaissance means that Christian morals and values had changed. In fact, if it delayed to the creative talents of Titian and other artists of the time, the Christian Church still remained consciously guarded, even opposed, towards the use of female as well as male nudity in public sculptures and painting, especially in churches. It was no surprise to anyone that the Council of Trent (1545-1563), Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church, attempted to bring to a stop the immoral and paganizing elements which had been claimed to become too widespread in Renaissance art, under the authority of classical canons. Female Nudes in Baroque Art The Renaissance continued to have an influence throughout the different art movements in European Art. After the renaissance the nude figure fascination continued. This encouraged artists to renew their outlook on the nude figure and the antique tradition. The female nude figure received a fresh new meaning in the art of Rubens, who with much satisfaction painted women with generous voluptuous figures as well as radiant skin. The Baroque flavor for allegories based on traditional metaphors also preferred undraped figures. These figures were used to represent concepts such as the Graces and Truth. Female Nudes in Rococo and Neoclassical Art In Rococo art one can see how the usage of the female nude figure evolves and becomes more suggestive the female nudes becomes more playful as well as suggestive as well as playful. This is clearly depicted in art works like in Fig.6 Francois Boucher (Reclining Girl, 1751) and Fig. 7 Jean-Antoine (The Judgment of Paris, 1751).Ã In this painting we can see how the female nude has become more suggestive by looking in the way the women is lying on the daybed, on her stomach with her legs spread wide, possibly looking at someone. The more playful depiction of the female nude can be seen Fig.8 Joseph Nollekens (Venus, 1773) is an example of Neoclassical female nude. This era was exemplified by sculptor artists such as John Nollekens and more others. These sculptors reconverted to the antique forms and poses of sculptures.http://www.mutualart.com/Images /2009_03/12/0066/134858/134858_8bfc7373-7e4d-423b-a3ed-db57c7e8f0e7_-1_570.Jpeg Female Nudes in 19th-Century Art Female nude figures from 19th-Century Art can be seen as placed in far- fetched, unusual settings, and not everyday scenes as in the other art eras. In this figure we see a nude woman sitting on the edge of a bed with her back towards the viewer. When looking at the fantasy images of Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema an extraordinary setting can also be seen. In Fig.9, Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema (The Tepidarium, 1881) a nude female is lying on what seems to be some sort of day bed. She is lying on a mat made of animal skin and covering her sexual organ with a feather. The extraordinary setting can be related to the name of this painting. Tapidarium is the room between the hot and cold rooms in Roman baths. Her face is slightly turned away and has no expression on. From these settings one can see that in the 19th century artworks the female nude is merely an object of desire. In these art works women are the sex that is looked at and men are the sex that is looking. The female nudes here dont have much personality; the faces are turned away from the viewer or have no emphasis on them. The female nude in the 19th century exists simply to be enjoyed by the viewer who is most likely the male figure. More figures that represent this are Fig.10 Francisco Goya (Naked Maja, 1800) and Fig.11 Ingres (Odalisque, 1841). Female Nudes in 20th-Century Art In the twentieth century the academic tradition lost its own cultural superiority, yet the nude figure has remained a steady feature in contemporary or modern art. Artists like Paul Cezanne (Les Grandes Baigneuses, 1900-6), Amedeo Modigliani (Reclining Nude, 1917 and others), Pablo Picasso (Les Demoiselles dAvignon, 1907), and Gustav Klimt (Adam and Eve, 1918) all incorporated the nude female figure into their style. So did all the German Expressionist groups.) In 20th-century sculpture art, realism of the anatomy was anatomical realism was exemplified by the nude polyester figures of a contemporary photorealist artist from America. John De Andrea. The voyeuristic tradition was held constant by Balthus (The Guitar Lesson, 1934 and The Room, 1952), Anders Zorn a prolific Swedish Impressionist (Girls From Dalarna Having a Bath, 1908), as well as a German artist Gerhard Richter (Ema: Nude on a Staircase, 1966). Conclusion It is safe to say that throughout art history and its eras we have witnessed many different approaches towards not only the female nude but the male nude figure as well as subject in art. Every era clearly had changes in its own style and attitude. It is not surprising that after all these years the genre of the nude female is still popular and is continuously being investigated by new breeds of artists in new ways. In this ever changing depiction of the genre it has become widely academic today and can even be said to be passÃ © by some, then being seen as just one more genre art students at college need to study before moving on to other important matter. This is due to a society that has become saturated with sexual media and causes for the traditional female nude in traditional art to lose its ability to shock and titillate. The perception of the female nude has evolved throughout the different eras in art and is seen the way it is seen today because of society and it aesthetics and moralism. I do believe that art has influenced the human and evolves with society as the world evolves, thus art has influenced, graphic, interior architectural and other design throughout the centuries. Referencing Visual-art-corks.com, Female nudes in painting and sculpture [Online]. Available From: http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/genres/female-nudes-art-history.htm [Accessed : 22 March 2011] Sorbella.J (2008) Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Nude in Baroque and later Art [Online.] Available From: http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/genres/female-nudes-art-history.htm [Accessed: 20 March 2011]
Monday, August 19, 2019
Question: How far did Stalin achieve and maintain what Kruchev described as Ã¢â¬Å"the accumulation of immense and limitless powerÃ¢â¬ , in the USSR between 1924 and 1945? Between 1924 and 1945, Joseph Stalin was able to emerge as the leader of the USSR and maintain what Kruchev described as Ã¢â¬Å"the accumulation of immense and limitless powerÃ¢â¬ . Stalin's rise to power was a combination of his ability to manipulate situations and the failure of others to prevent him from taking power, especially Leon Trotsky. Stalin ruled the USSR from 1929 until his death in 1953. His rule was one of tyranny, a great change from the society that his predecessor, Lenin, had envisioned. During his time of reign, Stalin put into effect two self-proclaimed "five-year plans". Both were very similar in that they were intended to improve production in the nation. The first of these plans began collectivization, in which harvests and industrial products were seized by the government and distributed as needed. The government eliminated most private businesses and the state became the leader in commerce. By these, and many more ideas, Stalin was able to collect limitless and immense power with no one to stop him. In 1925, according to historian V. Serge1, LeonTrotsky did not take advantage of several opportunities, which would have helped him to crush Stalin politically. When he failed to take advantage of these opportunities, Stalin maneuvered himself into a stronger position within the party by allying with Zinoviev and Kamnev. He manipulated them into crushing Trotsky, thus eliminating the strongest opponent in his path to power. Stalin cleverly avoided potential political diminishment when Lenin formulated his Testament in December 1922. Lenin's Testament2 described what he thought of the future of the Party and Party leaders, especially Trotsky and Stalin. Lenin warned the people of a potential split in which Stalin and Trotsky would be the head factors. When describing Stalin, Lenin felt that he had showed "Ã¢â¬ ¦unlimited authorityÃ¢â¬ ¦ in his hands and whether he will always be capable of using that authority with sufficient caution." The content of Lenin's Testament eventually became more damaging to Trotsky than Stalin, allowing Stalin to accumulate even more power. Together with Lenin unintentionally praising Stalin, Stalin manipulated the content of the Testament to enhance... ...e 1930s. He decided and persuaded the people that the former leaders and allies, such as Kamenev and Zenoviev, were plotting against the Party with Trotsky. The purpose of the purges, according to N. Mandelstam4, was not to secure power StalinÃ¢â¬â¢s position, but to intimidate the nation. So, all opponents were imprisoned. In January 1937, several other prominent Bolshevik leaders were trailed for treason and executed. The climax of StalinÃ¢â¬â¢s purges came in March 1938 when 21 leading Bolsheviks, including Bukharin, Rykov and Yagoda were similarly accused and killed. This demonstrates StalinÃ¢â¬â¢s immense power, for he could simply eliminate anyone standing in his way! Between 1924 and 1945, Stalin proved that he could, Ã¢â¬Å"accumulate immense and limitless powerÃ¢â¬ in the USSR, mainly because everyone was either scared or inspired by him. Many of the poor peasants thought that he could give them what the wanted. Many of the kulaks were afraid to face Joseph and those who did were imprisoned. Even the Party members who did not give Stalin his way were eliminated. Because of his immeasurable amount of power and strength over the nation, Joseph Stalin would not be opposed by anyone until his death!
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Discontinuity in Self-Reliance and When I Consider How My Light Is SpentÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ralph Waldo Emerson emphatically proclaims in "Self-Reliance" that "the highest merit we ascribe to Moses, Plato, and Milton is that they set naught at traditions but spokeÃ¢â¬ ¦what they thought" (515). Emerson declares that MiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s greatness is attributed not to conformity but rather to originality. MiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s break with consistent expectations is epitomized in his use of a Petrarchan sonnet in the poem "When I Consider How My Light Is Spent." Nonconformity and discontinuity in a manÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to life are the doctrines espoused by Emerson in his work "Self-Reliance," and Milton embodies an Emersonian outlook while inwardly searching for personal truth in his sonnet. The lack of formal structure in the works of the two authors enhances rather than inhibits the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s grasp of the literature. Although both Emerson and Milton employ a discontinuous literary style in their respective works, Emerson revels in his lack of continuity to further prom ulgate his ideology of nonconformity and inconsistency while MiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s use of discontinuity is procured in an attempt to understand his place before God. The foundation for comparing the two works will be based on the following definition of discontinuity: any literary approach that deviates from standard structural form. The absence of formal structure in EmersonÃ¢â¬â¢s "Self-Reliance" has been derided by some critics as an "insuperable handicap" to an appropriate understanding of the work (Warren 200). A thorough examination of the work, however, evokes two fundamental claims: Emerson provides a basis for some semblance of structure, and complete continuity is antithetical to the fundamentals of EmersonÃ¢â¬â¢s "Se... ..." The American Tradition in Literature. Eighth Edition. Ed. George Perkins. New York. McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1994. Milton, John. "When I Consider How My Light Is Spent." The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Sixth Edition. M.H.Abrams et al. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1996. Nicolson, Marjorie Hope. John Milton: A ReaderÃ¢â¬â¢s Guide to His Poetry. New York: Octagon Books, 1983. Packer, B.L. "EmersonÃ¢â¬â¢s Fall: A New Interpretation of the Major Essays." 19th Century Literary Criticism 38 (1993): 200-208. Robinson, David M. "Grace and Work: EmersonÃ¢â¬â¢s Essays in Theological Perspective." 19th Century Literary Criticism 38 (1993): 223-230. Warren, Joyce W. "Transcendentalism and the Self: Ralph Waldo Emerson." 19th CenturyLiterary Criticism 38 (1993): 208-213. Wilson, A.N. The Life of John Milton. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983. Ã Ã
Saturday, August 17, 2019
The secrets of eBay Power Sellers! How to MAKE MONEY on eBay Use this valuable guide as a MONEY MAKING TOOL. Read it from start to finish over and over. The amount of information and wholesale sources you will find seems overwhelming at first, but donÃ¢â¬â¢t be intimidated. Take your time and be patient. It is going to take you several days to check out the sites because there are just so many items to choose from. This guide is updated for 2003 and the resources are used by eBay Power Sellers ALL the time. I have been selling on eBay for some time, almost 3 years now. Almost from the beginning, I wondered how Power Sellers obtain products so cheap that they can sell on eBay and STILL MAKE MONEY. Here are THE ANSWERS. Since eBay has millions of users, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel itÃ¢â¬â¢s going to hurt my business to share this easy to read guide. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll find it easy to follow and learn the tips & tricks to selling successfully on eBay along with the very best wholesale sources to get you started. REMEMBER! Read this guide over and over again. Check out all the sites and links. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s amazing to find that you can buy products at incredibly low prices when you know where to get them at true wholesale. SELLING ON EBAY 1. WHAT TO SELL & HOW DO YOU WANT TO SELL IT: It does not have to be something that you enjoy selling, but it is easier to sell something that you would use yourself and that you believe in. I enjoy selling anything that does not earn me a one way ticket to the dark side in the afterlife, (lol), but will make me a profit in the present life. For starters you can purchase antiques, CDs, and just about anything you can imagine at true wholesale prices, and either list them on e-bay, your own website, take them to the flea-market, or your own retail store and make some real money with them. In fact, there many people around the country who have become a Ã¢â¬Å"Wholesale SupplierÃ¢â¬ themselves. What I mean by this is that they will get a few sample products, head to the flea market or local convenience stores, mark up their samples 10-15 %, and eureka, they are in business. At that point, all they need to do is keep their clients shelves stocked and count their cash!! I will tell you this a few times throughout this guide and remember itÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Do Not Be Afraid To Talk To People. 2. TIMES TO LIST: Never list your items to end during the day, unless you end them on the weeke... ... you will find top-quality merchandise from your favorite name brand companies! You'll also find a great selection with new products added every day. The products are top quality, just like those in the nation's finest department stores, and they're backed by the warranties you expect. Once you get your feet wet, and want to make some international contacts, go to http://www.globalsources.com , and http://www.allproducts.com . Both of these sites will put you in touch with suppliers from all around the globe. Ok, now for the Free To Sell ebook bonus. Simply click on the link below & save it somewhere easy to find on your computer. It is a virus free download. Simply follow the instructions when you execute the saved file. All you need to do is download the main ebook with this link, then download any other titles you wish from within the main ebook!! It is great!! http://huas.net/dlbin/freetosell6.exe These guide & bonuses are fantastic!! They are going to be very helpful to you. We have never had any complaints on this guide and have had many customers thank us over and over for helping them get their online, or retail business started. BEST OF LUCK AND HAVE FUN!!
The product that I will be proposing in the meeting will be a video game called FaDream. FaDreamÃ¢â¬â¢s platform will be connected to the FaDream Game Portal. This website will have a collection of downloadable games for the users.The users of FaDream will have to get the membership to the FaDream Game Portal in order to gain access to numerous games of all sorts. They will be charged with membership fees every month in order to stay connected. Besides this they will have to get a platform with remotes, virtual gaming equipment, etc.There have been video games in the past but what makes this one different from the rest is that this video game will only work once it is connected to the internet. It will be linked to a website called www.FaDream.com/gameportal which will have a collection of downloadable games.People might argue that such technology is nothing new because of the online games present on the internet through the computer. FaDream cannot be compared with online gaming b ecause the experience that the players will get with FaDream will be unmatched. What makes this product new is the quality, availability and variety of games present at all times.There will be no more hassle of buying expensive CDs from the store and taking care of them. There will be no more hassle of repairing the sensitive lens in the video game platform. All the users will need is the platform and an internet connection. The technology will be successful because of widespread use of internet already all over the world. Another factor which makes this different from everything else in the market is the affordability.FaDream will be Entertainment with Affordibiltiy. The price of the platform will be a fraction of what is paid for other video games in the market and this is what makes this product is feasible. To be more precise the price range of the platform will fall within $80 to $90 and besides this the membership fees will be approximately $7 per month.This is all about the p roduct and price of FaDream. This project will be joint venture with XYZ Company which already has a name in the market in order to gain confidence of its audience.The target audience that we will be satisfying with this technology will be middle class males and females within the age range of 8 to 30 years. The age range is so large because of the variety of games available on the FaDream portal. It has games for every gender and age. It will be advertised in magazines all over the world. Other mediums of advertisement that will be used will be the internet and television.The logo which will be used for advertisement will be Entertainment with Affordability. After an intense advertisement campaign which will inform the audience about the product, FaDream will be launched worldwide. After this launch, the advertising strategy will be changed and the advertisements will become persuasive. Once the audience has knowledge about the product, they will have to be convinced that they need to have it with them.In conclusion, this product is totally new in the market and this is its strength but we must not forget that the market has been taken over by very strong competition. Getting people to recognize FaDream from among every other video game will be a threat and a challenge. We must ensure that the marketing strategy that will be employed by us must have no limitations because a good marketing strategy will be our only opportunity. Ã
Friday, August 16, 2019
Although its origins can be traced back in the late 60's, even earlier, punk culture showed itself in the early 1970s and evolved in time. It seemed to form a distinct youth culture that in turn provoked a media-driven moral panic with certain ideologies, fashion choices, visual arts, dance styles, literature and films cluster around a loud Ã¢â¬â aggressive genre of music called Ã¢â¬Å"punk rockÃ¢â¬ and prompted notable cultural change. For decades, the punk culture shaped people's characters, perspectives about life. Even though there were a lot of negative opinions from people (Especially considering the word Ã¢â¬Å"punkÃ¢â¬ was a slang term used for describing certain groups of youths at the bottom of the social scale) who do not approve the punk culture about how distractive and harmful the ones who live their life dedicated to punk culture. Saying Ã¢â¬Å"Suffused with self-reflexive irony, these punkshave recycled cultural images and fragments for purposes of parody and shockingjuxtaposition, thereby deconstructing the dominant meanings and simulationswhich saturate social spaceÃ¢â¬ (Moore, 307) and claim they are a threat for the society. The punk culture has been providing the freedom of self-expression, self-esteem many of the punk culture followers lack of in many areas and bringing them together and show people their capability, the real power they have in life to change the world.Punk culture gave people a type of freedom that supports being an individual. Before people embraced the punk culture expressing opinions that are out of the societies liking were not okay. However, punk culture is mainly based on knowing every individual has a different approach to a topic and supporting to emit these opinions openly, without fear. According to punk culture the first step to be an independed individual requires not accepting everything the society tells you, not following rules they teach you, not listening what the authority says; just use your own mind to guide yourself, use your power to do everything that was normally supposed to be hidden, as society says, to bring to the front, to in front of the society's face. In order to follow that movement, the most prevalent core value in the punk subculture that created itself is Do-It-Yourself (or D.I.Y.). For example, punk music bands adopted the Do-It-Yourself subculture to record their own music, to release their own records, to book their own shows and tours, radically to spread their own ideas with the minimum amount of outside assistance. They made their own merchandise for their fans, sometimes even with the help of their fans. The outgrowth of hardcore punk in the 1980s would not have been possible without D.I.Y. Because no major labels showed interest in punk, punks were forced into creating almost every aspect of the subculture (Moran, 62). D.I.Y. in the punk subculture is often not a choice because of the low economic income of individuals in the subculture. At some point punks had no choice other than not rely on anyone but themselves. To follow the D.I.Y. method, the punk did not have to have the same perspective about world. There were virtually no politics in uniform except for doing it yourself. One of the articles used to create this research gave the example of Screwdriver, a white supremacist band, and Crass, an anarchist punk band, as both being classified as Ã¢â¬Å"punkÃ¢â¬ bands despite their lack of shared values. Being a participant in the punk subculture suggests that one must be active in the creation and support of other members of the movement (Moran, 63).The fashion sense the punks promotes individual freedom and self Ã¢â¬â appreciation. The punk fashion, again, is supported by the D.I.Y. method. A lot of clothe items is made, sewed and put together by the person who wears the clothes. Punk was a radical style marked by unconventional combinations of elements and materials and a high shock value. What began as an anti-style aimed at thumbing its nose at the established norms of high fashion ended up having a great deal of influence on the fashions of the late 1970s and beyond (1). The look of punk was basically wearing almost entirely black, pants with holes in them, especially on the knees, which deliberately ripped, composed their outfits mixing, matching, and layering as they saw fit. To have a altered, more individual look was the main key to look punk. Quite often the garments were torn, colored, with the items bought at second-hand or military surplus shops. Black turtlenecks, short leather skirts or tight leather pants or jeans, leather jackets customized with paint, chains, safety pins and metal studs, and heavy leather boots were essential for the look. The clothes were often decorated with obscene or disturbing words and images. What is now called punk is generally dated to 1972 when the British fashion designers Malcolm McLaren (1946Ã¢â¬â) and Vivienne Westwood (1941Ã¢â¬â) opened their London boutique, First called Too Fast To Live, Too Young To Die and later renamed Sex, sold a variety of black leather and rubber designs and became a central meeting place for those in the emerging punk music scene (1). Gender based clothing was no longer ideal for them to express their self-image, the idea of Ã¢â¬Å"There is no gender, clothes are just piece of fabricÃ¢â¬ began to assimilated by the punks and spread to world. Speaking of self-image and expression, re-creating your image other than wearing Ã¢â¬Ëpunk appropriate' clothes were being espoused such as dying natural hair with vibrant hair colors, different haircuts and styles (for example, spiked haircut, achieved by applying large amounts of gel or Vaseline to one's hair and then rubbing talcum powder into it to dry it into spikes that stuck out away from the head, or shaved parts or all of their heads, creating mohawks), doing obscure make-up looks with darkened eyelids and lips for both men and women, piercing multiple body parts, doing tattoos which is considered to be only can own by the prisoners a.k.a. bad guy (which supported punks to provoke the society) and creating new methods and styles for these acts (for example dermal Ã¢â¬Ëanchors' piercing). Doing all of these punk styles, seeing others to do them too, enabled punks to feel more comfortable and safe in their own skin with the freedom of self-expression.The genre of music punk culture creates helps people to express their emotions. In general, punk rock was a negation of the dominant trends in popular music. It contained attitudes, approaches and subject-matter that had been excluded from the practice of popular music, which by the mid-1970s was more than ever. Punk rock was intensely contradictory. Frequently, the same musician used both progressive and reactionary elements (sometimes even in the same song). The main style of punk rock was fast, loud and aggressive rhythm and used of harsh, very expressive language in lyrics which disturbed many other people due to the political statements they partake. Punk groups have produced songs about unemployment (Career Opportunities, Right To Work), the Notting Hill carnival (White Riot), the monarchy (God Save The Queen) and general expressions of an apocalyptic rebellion (Anarchy In The UK, London's Burning), many of these songs have not been broadcast as a result of formal or covert censorship, it is worth dealing in some detail with the most prominent of them (Laing, 124). The punk performers claimed they were Ã¢â¬Ëexposing the reality'. Also, again, the usage of the D.I.Y., the records were made quickly and cheaply in small recording studios, manufactured and distributed locally through a company set up by a manager or local entrepreneur, such as a record shop owner, created not perfect copy of the records compared to the earlier music styles that embraced the clean sound of music. However, this imperfect image of punk music represents did not back-fired like the others (anti-punks) assumed. Listeners liked the natural vocal and sound approach. Another approach the punk performers focused on was sexuality, the aggression they present was usually sexual. The Rolling Stones used this approach a lot to their advantage. Another style called Ã¢â¬Å"glamrockÃ¢â¬ (glamorous rock, named after the fancy, over-the-top style the performers choose) performed by David Bowie, Queen and others was also an influence on this style. The punks support each other's idea, that's why the punk culture created big, worldwide communities. Firstly, studying a punk concert, seeing the communication and relationship between the performers and the audience, also between the audience itself is a very efficient way to choose. Participants perform the carnival rituals of faux violence, and in doing so establish, maintain, and sustain the resident punk community and culture. The activities near the stage give the impression of chaos. Audience participants readily mounted the stage and dove or ran back into the crowd. Band members easily entered and left the audience (HerrMann, 166). Punk rock can be played in concert at either venues or basement shows, aired on radio stations, or recorded to albums or bootlegs for dissemination by the punk wing of the cassette culture. Parties also serve as an important component of a punk scene, providing an event to exchange music and reinforce scene solidarity. Punks mostly interact with one another in their local area, forming a local punk scene. In dozens of countries worldwide, almost all major cities, many medium-sized cities, and a few small towns have such scenes. The worldwide punk community may sometimes be called the punk scene. Another approach to observe the community supported by the punk culture the ideas and acts support equality such as feminism, meaning to support equality between women and men and LGBTQ+ community and understand that they were big steps to enlighten people's minds and change their perspectives. The ones who struggle with their own sexualities and genders were supported by many communities. Of course not everyone was happy with that, but it was just the beginning. Punks were scruffy, dirty in clothing and language, but at the same time with a sense of parody and steeped in irony. The punk culture was a celebration of chaos. Punk was a culture that reflected a consumer-based society moving out of affluence into real economic, social, and political crisis. The Punks intentionally disconnect themselves from the parent culture and represent themselves as inscrutable. The music they created was crude and chaotic. Unlike any previous music-based youth culture, the punks attempted to break down the barriers between performers and audiences. All of these facts had a big role to shape the world we now have.WORKS CITED* HerrMann, Andrew F. Never Mind the Scholar, Here's the Old Punk: Identity, Community, and the Aging Music Fan. In Studies in Symbolic Interaction. 2015.*Laing, Dave. The Sound of Our Time Ã¢â¬Å"Interpreting Punk RockÃ¢â¬ . Quadrangle Books, 1970.*Mooran, Ian P. Punk: The Do-It-Yourself Subculture,Ã¢â¬ Social Sciences Journal. 2010.*Moore, Ryan. Postmodernism and Punk Subculture: Cultures of Authenticity and Deconstruction, The Communication Review. 2004.*Punk.Ã¢â¬ Fashion, Costume, and Culture: Clothing, Headwear, Body Decorations, and Footwear through the Ages. 10 Apr. 2018, www.encyclopedia.com.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
One Cuil = One level of abstraction away from the reality of a situation. Example: You ask me for a Hamburger. 1 Cuil: if you asked me for a hamburger, and I gave you a raccoon. 2 Cuils: If you asked me for a hamburger, but it turns out I don't really exist. Where I was originally standing, a picture of a hamburger rests on the ground. 3 Cuils: You awake as a hamburger. You start screaming only to have special sauce fly from your lips. The world is in sepia. 4 Cuils: Why are we speaking German? A mime cries softly as he cradles a young cow. Your grandfather stares at you as the cow falls apart into patties.You look down only to see me with pickles for eyes, I am singing the song that gives birth to the universe. 5 Cuils: You ask for a hamburger, I give you a hamburger. You raise it to your lips and take a bite. Your eye twitches involuntarily. Across the street a father of three falls down the stairs. You swallow and look down at the hamburger in your hands. I give you a hamburger. Y ou swallow and look down at the hamburger in your hands. You cannot swallow. There are children at the top of the stairs. A pickle shifts uneasily under the bun. I give you a hamburger. You look at my face, and I am pleading with you. The children are crying now.You raise the hamburger to your lips, tears stream down your face as you take a bite. I give you a hamburger. You are on your knees. You plead with me to go across the street. I hear only children's laughter. I give you a hamburger. You are screaming as you fall down the stairs. I am your child. You cannot see anything. You take a bite of the hamburger. The concrete rushes up to meet you. You awake with a start in your own bed. Your eye twitches involuntarily. I give you a hamburger. As you kill me, I do not make a sound. I give you a hamburger. 6 Cuils: You ask me for a hamburger. My attempt to reciprocate is cut rutally short as my body experiences a sudden lack of electrons. Across a variety of hidden dimensions you are d ismayed. John Lennon hands me an apple, but it slips through my fingers. I am reborn as an ocelot. You disapprove. A crack echoes through the universe in defiance of conventional physics as cosmological background noise shifts from randomness to a perfect A Flat. Children everywhere stop what they are doing and hum along in perfect pitch with the background radiation. Birds fall from the sky as the sun engulfs the earth. You hesitate momentarily before allowing yourself to assume the locus of all knowledge.Entropy crumbles as you peruse the information contained within the universe. A small library in Phoenix ceases to exist. You stumble under the weight of everythingness; your mouth opens up to cry out, and collapses around your body before blinking you out of the spatial plane. You exist only within the fourth dimension. The fountainhead of all knowledge rolls along the ground and collides with a small dog. My head tastes sideways as space-time is reestablished, you blink back int o the corporeal world disoriented, only for me to hand you a hamburger as my body collapses under the strain of reconstitution.The universe has reasserted itself. A particular small dog is fed steak for the rest of its natural life. You die in freak accident moments later, and you soul works at the returns desk for the Phoenix library. You disapprove. Your disapproval sends ripples through the inter-dimensional void between life and death. A small child begins to cry as he walks toward the stairway where his father stands. 7 Cuils: I give you a hamburger. The universe is engulfed within itself. A bus advertising hotdogs drives by a papillon. It disapproves. An unnatural force reverses Earth's gravity. You ask for a hamburger.I reciprocate with a mildly convulsing potato. You disapprove. Your disapproval releases a cosmic shift in the void between birth and life. You ask for a hamburger. A certain small dog feasts on hamburger patties for the rest of its unnatural, eternal endurance. Your constant disapproval sends silence through everything. A contrived beast becomes omnipotent. You ask for a hamburger. I give you a hamburger your body becomes an unsettled blob of nothingness, then divides by three. The papillon barks. The universe realigns itself. You, the papillon, and the hamburger disapprove. This condemnation stops the realignment.Hades freezes over. A pig is launched is launched into the unoccupied existence between space and time with a specific hamburger. You ask for a hamburger. I give you a hamburger. It screams as you lift it to your face. You laugh maniacally as I plead with you. You devour the hamburger as it pleads for mercy. I disapprove and condemn you to an eternity in a certain void where a certain pig and its specific hamburger are located. The Universal Space-time Continuum Committee disapproves of my irrational decision. You are locked away and are fed hamburgers for the rest of your natural existence.A pickle refuses to break down during the process of digestion. You die in a freak accident. A certain pickle lives the rest of its life in a comatose state. Your soul disapproves. Down the street a child cries as a hamburger gets stuck in, and climbs back up, her esophagus. You ask again for a hamburger. I refuse to reciprocate. You demand a lawyer. I remind you harshly that this is the new world order. Lawyers no longer exist. Only papillons. Your name is written on a list of sins. Blasphemy. You ask for a hamburger. The comatose pickle vanquishes your soul from this universe. Realignment occurs. You beg for a hamburger.A certain papillon's name is written on an obelisk in Egypt. Mumble. Peasants worship the obelisk. Your soulless corpse partakes in the festivity. Hamburgers are banned universally. The sun implodes. All planets cease to have ever existed. Mercury. Venus. Earth. Mars. Jupiter. Saturn. Uranus. Neptune. Pluto is the only mass in existence. Conveniently, you are on vacation here. Your need for hamburgers re-establishes space-time. Earth is recreated under your intergalactic rule. Hamburgers are your army. You wake up. Clowns. Clowns everywhere. Your dream rushes to meet you. You are kidnapped. You ask for a hamburger. They hand you a hotdog.
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
Is the student| |Constructivist |and cultural belief can influence the |along with the teacher a book. |responding or actively participating in class | | |learning along with interactions of other |Teacher will give the student a project on a topic|discussions | | |students in the classroom. and then will present it in front of the class |Mind mapping will have the students list and | | |In a classroom that utilizes the theory of |Have the students watch a clip or a movie and then|categorize new concepts | | |constructivism, there would be: |the teacher will conduct a discussion afterwards |Pre-assessments allows the teacher to know what | | |Vigorous participation |Teacher can take the students on a field trip to |the students know and what topics they will need | | | Small group interactions |relate real world experiences to the concepts |to be taught | | |New concepts shown within context |learned in class |Hands on activities assess how the students can | | |Previous knowledge used to create new | |utilize a particular learning tool | | |knowledge | | | |Questions or activities to lead to new | | | | |concepts | | | | |This theory is based on the teacher defines |Teacher can have the students underline a portion |Assessments though individual work. Is the | |Explicit or Direct |and model the concept, guides the students |of the text on an overhead or on the board to |student completing and doing individual | |Instruction |through application, and creates guided |depict whatever topic is being discussed, like |assignments? | | |practice until there is mastery of the |naming the nouns, proper nouns, prepositions, etc. |Assessment through a test or quiz with an essay | | |concept. Ask the students to check the text on the overhead|writing or proje ct report | | |In this model, the classroom will consists |because you need to prove whatever topic is being |An informal assessment through having the | | |of: |discussed |children do Ã¢â¬Å"thumbs up or thumbs downÃ¢â¬ | | |Direct instruction of phonemic awareness |Ask the students to read a passage to see if it | | | |Decoding skills |sounds right and makes sense, then ask if there | | | |Rules of language |should be any revisions | | | | |Skill based worksheets, flash cards, or game | | | | |relating to the new concept | | Reading Philosophies It is important to know what type of effective teaching strategies you want to have when you step inside the classroom doors. Although there are many different teaching styles, the two most common philosophies are direct/explicit instruction and constructivist. Choosing either method is a matter of preference and what will work best for the teacher and the students. No matter what, the information that is given to the students must be informative and related to their needs as well as their particular grade level. This essay will discuss both approaches and what method I would like to utilize when I become a teacher. Ã¢â¬Å"Teachers can give students ladders that lead to higher understanding, yet the students themselves must climb these laddersÃ¢â¬ (Slavin, 2009, p. 231) emphasizes the view of a constructivist in which the students are vital roles in their own learning and development. A traditional idea about teaching is comparable to the constructivist method of teaching. This method commonly has the teacher identifying learning objectives, planning learning activities, and creating assessments. However this theory relies on the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge and more hands on activities. The teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s role is to facilitate personal learning by establishing a community of learners, and by making it clear to the student that he or she is part of the community (Baines & Stanley, 2000). Jean Piaget is well known for generally attributing to the formalization of constructivism. Piaget felt that accommodation and assimilation will help students construct new knowledge from their past experiences. When students assimilate, they will digest their new experience into a pre-existing context without altering the new context. It is also important to know that constructivism is not a specific pedagogy. In short, this theory describes how learning happens, despite of whether students are using their past experiences to comprehend the lesson. In a constructivist classroom, there would be (1) vigorous participation (2) small group discussions (3) concepts introduced within context, and (4) authentic literature, (GCU, 2013). Truthfully, many aspects of constructivism are commendable (Baines & Stanley, 2000). One component of this theory is small group discussions. The next theory is direct or explicit instruction. This model (1) sets the stage for learning (2) teacher provides clear explanation of what to do (3) modeling the process (4) guided practice, and (4) independent practice. Throughout explicit instruction, teachers are responsible for monitoring the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ needs and providing them a kind of scaffolding that is appropriate throughout their learning process. Modeling is a key component of scaffolded instruction (Truscott & Truscott, 2004). When this strategy is used there will be gradual withdrawal of supportive learning structures to eventually become the sole responsibility of the student (Truscott & Truscott, 2004). This concept has been known to improve learning however it may take a long time for the student to master. However once it is mastered, the student feels a sense of accomplishment and self-sufficient. Explicit instructions make the student responsible as well in a different way that constructivism is administered. Students will know and understand what they are expected to perform by themselves and what goals that they will work towards. In the content of reading, studies have shown that direct teaching of word meanings in a reading passage is more effective than an uninstructed vocabulary learning approach (Sanbul & Schmitt (2010). There is an allowance for student engagement as well. Learning is an active process. Teachers of this model will maintain the classroom with proper behavior; however students should stay actively involved in the lesson in order to have the greatest impact on their learning. While they are being taught, students will be focused on the lesson as well as try to make sense of the new material. I feel that either theory is the not better than the other. I feel that both theories can work together in a classroom if they are balanced out. A study was conducted at the University of Kansas of 83 students who were targeted in the winter of kindergarten as being high risk for reading failure. Interventions were conducted in small groups of one to six students for thirty minute sessions, three times per week, for a two year period (Kamps, Abbot, Greenwood, Wills, Verrkamp, Kaufman, 2008). Reading comprehension is a very complex skill to teach. In this study, the students worked on comprehension strategies including decoding words, phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge and rapid letter naming. As a result, the findings from this study proved that small group instruction improved in critical early literacy skills. Some students even advanced to grade level performance (Kamps, Abbot, Greenwood, Wills, Verrkamp, Kaufman, 2008). I feel this is a great example of both theories placed into one. The teacher was incorporated by working directly with the students; however the students were placed in smaller groups like in the constructivism theory. In my classroom, I would use constructivism to create a print-rich environment with studentÃ¢â¬â¢s work posted and a time that students are free and able to discuss classroom topics. I would also relate the content that is being taught to a life experience so the students can understand that specific content area. I would also create high levels of interaction with lots of group work. However there will be a time for explicit instruction. I will monitor the students for understanding to make sure that they are deriving meaning from the instruction. I also think it is important that I model the assignment before I give it, especially for kindergarten because their understanding for directions is still very new. All teaching strategies or theories require some form of assessment to make sure the student understands the given concept. Although both theories are quite different, the assessments are the same. The assessments are either formative or summative. Teachers will use formative assessments through class observations of participation, questioning strategies, and peer or self assessment. Through summative strategies, it is usually benchmark exams or state mandated standardized testing. In conclusion, both theories have been proven to be very successful. Researchers agree that teachers need to be adaptive to meet studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ diverse and individual needs (Parsons, Davis, Scales, Williams, Kear, 2010). No one can clearly state which theory works better. I have observed both theories inside classrooms of today and the students were successful in their learning. I feel that whatever works best for you and your students, then just go for it. Bottom line, we need the students to become successful and proper citizens once they graduate so I hope to do my best when I am teaching and use both theories to make it happen. References Baines, L. A. , & Stanley, G. (2000). Ã¢â¬ËWe Want to See the Teacher. Ã¢â¬Ë. Phi Delta Kappan, 82(4), 327. Kamps, D. , Abbott, M. , Greenwood, C. , Wills, H. , Veerkamp, M. , & Kaufman, J. (2008). Effects of Small-Group Reading Instruction and Curriculum Differences for Students Most at Risk in Kindergarten. Journal Of Learning Disabilities, 41(2), 101-114. Parsons, S. A. , Davis, S. G. , Scales, R. Q. Williams, B. , & Kear, K. A. (2010). How AND WHY TEACHERS ADAPT THEIR LITERACY INSTRUCTION. College Reading Association Yearbook, (31), 221-236. Slavin, R. E. (2009). Educational Psychology. In R. E. Slavin, Educational Psychology (pp. 30-44). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education, Inc. Sonbul, S. , & Schmitt, N. (20 10). Direct teaching of vocabulary after reading: is it worth the effort?. ELT Journal: English Language Teachers Journal, 64(3), 253-260. doi:10. 1093/elt/ccp059 Truscott, D. M. , & Truscott, S. D. (2004). A professional development model for the positive practice of school-based reading consultation. Psychology In The Schools, 41(1), 51-65.