Friday, August 30, 2019

Environment Coursework Essay

CO2 (Carbon dioxide) is a compound composed of two carbons and one oxygen, It is a colorless and odorless gas produced both naturally and through human activities like the burning of gasoline, coal, oil, and wood. People exhale or breathe out Carbon dioxide which releases it into the air. Carbon dioxide are higher in areas with heavier industrial activities due to many factors. Factors such as the number of people present the amount of outdoor fresh air entering the area and whether combustion by-products are contaminating the indoor. are just a few of the many carbon dioxide releasers. Carbon Dioxide is a gas used by plants during photosynthesis for the production of sugars which may either be re-consumed in respiration or used as raw materials to produce polysaccharides such as starch and cellulose, proteins and other organic compounds needed for plant growth and development. Plants role is photosynthesis is extremely important because it remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and uses it to produce oxygen. Deforestation cuts down many plants, trees and forest and reduces the trees available to absorb the carbon dioxide from our planet. CO (Carbon Monoxide) is a molecule that contains one carbon atom covalently bonded to one oxygen atom and is produced from partial oxidation of carbon compounds such as in internal combustion engines. Carbon monoxide burning in air with a characteristic blue flame will produce carbon dioxide. It is extremely toxic but plays a useful role in modern technology. Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless and tasteless, yet highly toxic gas. Its molecules consist of one carbon atom covalently bonded to one oxygen atom. It is the simplest oxocarbon, and can be viewed as the anhydride of formic acid. There are two covalent bonds and a coordinate covalent bond between the oxygen and carbon atoms. In urban areas, carbon monoxide reacts photochemically with aldehydes to produce a peroxy radical which reacts with nitrogen oxide to increase ratio of NO2 to NO, thus reducing the quality of NO to available to react with ozone. It is a constituent of tobacco smoking. Through natural processes in the atmosphere, it is eventually oxidized to carbon dioxide. Carbon monoxide concentrations are both short-lived in the atmosphere and spatially variable. CH4 is known as methane, a chemical compound that is also the simplest alkane and the principal component of natural gas. Methane is known to be a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential of 72 averaged over a period of 20 years. Methane is oxidized in the atmosphere thus, producing carbon dioxide and water. The Earth’s crust contains huge amounts of methane. Large amounts of methane are produced anaerobically by methanogenesis. Other sources include mud volcanoes, which are connected with deep geological faults, and livestock, primarily cows. Methane is used for electrical generations by being burned as a fuel in a gas turbine or steam boiler. Methane is also used as a vehicle fuel in the form of compressed natural gas and is claimed to be more environmentally friendly that fossil fuels such as gasoline and petroleum. Answer 2: Area =1000 1000 x 0. 625 gallon/inch x 0. 3 inch = 187. 5 gallons/ Rain = 0. 3 inches 0. 625 gallon/inch Answer 3: Ecosystem services are fundamental to human life. They not only help promote economic benefits but offer the protection of human health and safety. One ecosystem service essential for human life is fresh water. Fresh water is a source of supply that does not have technological substitute for at this time. There may be some water purification processes but it does not replace the need for replenishment of fresh water. The key to maintaining water purification services is to protect and restore the ecosystems that provide these services. The economic cost of this service is priceless in terms of money. Answer 4: Biogeochemical cycles are often disrupted by human activities such as cultivation of land to grow annual crops disrupts the nutrient balance in the soil. This results in the nutrients being removed from the area as the plants are being shipped off for food and the straw is removed for other purposes. Plant material then breaks down and farmers replenish the removed nutrients by adding fertilizer to the soil – further disrupting the biogeochemical cycle. Logging is another way that disrupts biological chemical by reducing the amount of oxygen in the air and allow gave room for the buildup of carbon monoxide. When logging occurs, what happen is that millions of trees and plants are removed from the earth’s atmosphere making them unable to convert the carbon monoxide in the air into oxygen, thus, allowing carbon monoxide build up as well as reducing the overall amount of oxygen in the atmosphere. In order to help stop this disruption, we must find a way to protect the few natural land that we have left from the destruction of farming and logging by not being wasteful of the resources that are available to us and to make it a responsibility to recycling paper product as a part of our lifestyle. References: Raven, Peter H. , & Johnson, George B. (2002). Biology. Boston. McGraw Hill.

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