Monday, September 30, 2019

Family Bond Essay

The family system is the most conspicuous bond in the social scheme of things. This bond ties people to each other with invisible strings of love and care, each one bonded to all others in his/her entirety. The family that consists of the elder’s brothers, sisters and children are all bound to each other no matter how far away they may be from each other physically. The family is the inspiration of each individual member and, above all, it is the objective for which each individual member lives and works. The encouragement from the family helps one to achieve marathon goals, and it is the family only that, at time forces a person to adopt the wrong path. Thus the family is of so much importance to every member that, its bonds are in reality responsible for whatever each member achieves or loses. The family is as if the backbone on which the bodies of the individuals in it stand. It is the family that acts as a booster for each one in it and, it is the same family that at times becomes a stumbling block in the growth of an individual in it. This is because the bonds of love are too great to be set apart and as we often hear that love is blind. It is this same blind love of the family that may at times prove to be a hindrance to growth For example, a child in the family may be brilliant in studies but the extreme and blind love of the parents wants to see him as the next Sachin Tendulkar. They, in trying to fulfill their ambition may try to impose their desire on the child and he, in the bargain loses track of studies. At the same time since he has no inclination for cricket, he does not manage to achieve anything in that sphere also. Thus, due to the unquestioned love and bond of the family, the child loses out on both fronts. He is unable to become Sachin Tendulkar and neither has he been able to keep pace with his studies. In this way, the bonds of the family prove to be disastrous also. At the same time, with the backing and support of the family, a child can work wonders as, it is here he gets all the encouragement and back up support. Besides being a support for the children of a family it has often been heard that, b ehind every successful man, there is a woman. This again goes to show how much the backing of a good co-operative wife helps the man also to grow in his career. Thus it is seen that the family bonds play a very prominent part in making or breaking each member of the family. It is from broken homes that, drug addicts, juvenile criminals are also created, so much is the importance of the bonds of a family. So much for parents and children in a family. Even grandparents have an intrinsic role to play in the growth of the individuals. If the children play and have fun with grandparents, they develop a liking for elders, and they learn to respect elders. Once they see their parents behaving well with the grandparents they also learn how to behave with elders. This presence of elders in a family makes the bonds still more pleasant and more lasting. Like everything else, bonds of a family also have their advantages and disadvantages. However, the disadvantages are so minuscule that, the prominent advantages overpower them and the essence of family life and its bonds appear to be just worth it. Where there is a family to fall back upon, even hard times of misfortune, it becomes easier to bear and this is just what family bonds is all about. These bonds are so strong that, no power can break them or destroy them. It is however great luck to get the fortune of a fully blooming family with all its bonds in place.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

‘Mirror’ & double-layered poem Essay

‘Mirror’ is a double-layered poem: The mirror, personified and equipped with senses, sees and depicts its world in the most honest terms; then we see our own world from the mirror’s perspective—how raw and tormenting it is. Why the author chooses to personify a mirror as the poem’s narrator is firstly because it is an object most closely associated with a woman who seeks to see â€Å"what she really is† (11). When she is young, the mirror cheerfully reflects and praises her youthful beauty, letting her contemplate on her own appearance. When she is old, it cruelly reminds her of time’s meddling in her fading beauty and how life has passed and left her behind. Secondly, the mirror reflects the world just as it is—it cannot lie to us—and faithfully shows us all signs of aging, sorrow, pain and sickness that appear in our face. The theme of the poem is the effects of time reflected in the mirror, how it â€Å"has drowned a young girl† and makes a woman become â€Å"an old woman†. Adverbs depicting the motion of time are employed throughout the poem: â€Å"most of the time† (6), â€Å"so long† (7), â€Å"over and over† (9), â€Å"Now† (10), â€Å"Each morning† (16), â€Å"day after day† (18). The irony is deliberated in the difference between the mirror’s reflection and cognition of changes in the outside world. The woman who looks at the mirror is sad because her beauty and youthfulness are fading while her tears and agitation are considered â€Å"rewards† by the mirror. In the first stanza, the mirror simply tries to define its existence and introduce the reader to its world using its own language register. In the opening line, the mirror describes its appearance and unique quality, â€Å"I am silver and exact. I have no preconception. †(1). The word ‘swallow’ demonstrates Plath’s sensitivities and playfulness in her personification and imagery: everything is instantly reflected inside the mirror as if the mirror has devoured them. Next, mirror immediately explains its ‘non-discriminatory’ behaviours as being truthful rather than cruel. In the last four lines of stanza 1, the mirror honestly describes its bounded world. Ironically, even though the mirror reflects everything truthfully and exactly with no preconceptions or prejudice, it seems to live in self-created illusions, that the opposite wall is â€Å"a part of my heart†. Line 8 presents the mirror with human characteristics, not â€Å"the eye of a little god, four-cornered† as it describes itself. Nevertheless, its world constantly collides with the world outside it—our world: â€Å"it flickers. //Faces and darkness separate us over and over. † In the first stanza, the use of caesura in most of the sentences interrupts the flow of the poem but gives the mirror its own tone: emphatic and meditative. The enjambment between line 2 and 3 as well as between line 7 and 8 allow the mirror to reflect on itself naturally and coherently. In stanza 2, the mirror ironically creates another illusion, â€Å"Now I am a lake† (10), which is in contrast with its claim to be â€Å"only truthful†. It proudly demonstrates its usefulness in helping a woman to see â€Å"what she really is†. The images of the â€Å"candles† and â€Å"moon† (12) may symbolize fragility, inconstancy and instability which contrast with how faithfully it serves the woman (13). The connection between the mirror and the woman strengthens by day: it is important to her and she brightens its existence. Nevertheless, its unintended cruelty is shown in its being â€Å"only truthful† (4). The simile ‘like a terrible fish’ is consistent with the mirror’s illusion that it is a lake but it shows Plath’s grotesque and tormenting view of aging—as a destructive and dehumanizing process. The poem is structured as narrative prose poetry, with the use of caesura to create an emphatic tone, to present the mirror as a misunderstood, proud and honest object. The mirror exactly and dutifully reflects what appears before it and considers the changes shown in it others’ doing and completely out of its power: â€Å"she drowned a young girl, and in me an old woman//Rises toward her day after day† (17-18).

Saturday, September 28, 2019

The Fibre Optics Technology Engineering Essay

In the past year the information is fetched on developments, inventions and hereafter is explained in perceptible mode In add-on to the aforesaid benefits, fibre optics overseas telegrams have high electrical opposition, are non affected by electromagnetic Fieldss, secure, and low weight. Even so, short distance communications usually rely on electrical Cu wiring due to its much lower cost, easiness of usage, and ability to transport a current. Other utilizations of fibre optics include medical imagination and as centripetal tools. A The subject about the integrated-optic modulators in high velocity fiber-optic links, operation of devices used to externally modulate light beginnings used with fiber-optic ushers has been explained in a perceptible modeIntroductionA fiber-optic communicating system uses the same basic functional constituents as a copper-based communicating system-a sender, receiving system and transmittal medium-except that a fibre-optical nexus ( FOL ) uses optical fiber ( in topographic point of Cu overseas telegram ) as the transmittal medium. Here the optical fiber connects the sender and the receiving system. It carries information in the signifier of light and mainly consists of three parts, viz. , the nucleus, the facing, and the buffer or coating that is used to give strength and protection to the fiber overseas telegram. The nucleus is the cardinal portion of the fiber through which light base on ballss because of the procedure of entire internal contemplation. The cladding surrounds the nucleus, with a different refractile index so that light go throughing through the nucleus stays in that part. The sender consists of an electrical interface, optical modulator and light emitter, and a optical maser rectifying tube or LED for encoding. At the other side, to change over visible radiation into an electrical signal, the receiving system uses either a PIN photodiode or an avalanche photodiode ( APD ) . Several other constituents take portion in set uping an optical fiber nexus ; for illustration, multiplexer, de-multiplexer, signal regenerators, signal repeaters ( or optical amplifiers ) , couplings and splitters. In an optical transmittal system, pick of optical modulators plays an of import portion in the overall public presentation of the system. In this article, we ‘ll concentrate on high-velocity optical modulators, but before we dwell on them in item have a expression at the rudimentss of optical modulators.Optical ModulatorsConverting information in the si gnifier of electric signals into light moving ridges is known as optical transition. This sort of transition can be achieved either straight or externally. In direct transition, information in the signifier of electric signals is applied straight to the light beginning. Many links use this sort of technique to cut down complexness of the system, but when informations rates or the length of the nexus additions, ‘on'/'off ‘ velocity restriction of the optical maser generates waveguide chirp and stage transition. This causes amplitude transition deformation at the receiving system side, which is unwanted for high-definition, high-data-rate communicating. In such a state of affairs, a continuously-‘on ‘ optical maser beginning provides a better solution. That is the basic thought of indirect transition or external transition. In direct transition, digital logic province ‘1'/'0 ‘ is applied straight as ‘on'/'off ‘ electric signal or two dif ferent degrees of electromotive force to the light beginning. In these fortunes, factors like clip invariable of the drive circuitry, building of the visible radiation beginning itself and the features of the transmittal medium ( say, optical fibre ) affect the highest frequence at which the visible radiation beginning can run. Using high-velocity layout and microwave design techniques and high velocity short-pulse integrating ; the job with the circuit and transmittal medium can be minimized. But as stated earlier, the major restriction of this technique is exchanging of the visible radiation beginning itself. In a typical optical maser beginning, this shift cause ‘s electrical and thermic emphasis, which consequences in a frequence displacement known as ‘chirp, ‘ transients and decreased life of the light beginning? In external transition, the optical maser rectifying tube itself stays unmodulated. Data is delivered straight to electrically modulate the crystalli ne stuff like Li niobate. This device can repeatedly exchange visible radiation without impacting the light beginning. Three types of external modulators are normally used: electro-absorption modulators based on Ga – arsenide ( GaAs ) or indium-phosphate ( InP ) semiconducting material, electro ocular modulators based on polarized polymers, and modulators based on electro ocular crystals like Li niobate and other stuffs. Fig. 2 shows the basic difference between direct and external modulators. Over the period, external modulators based on Li niobate ( LiNbO3 ) have become more popular because of its low optical loss and high electro ocular coefficient. Next is described the working of amplitude and stage modulators, followed by their comparing with semiconducting material modulators based on GaAs ( gallium arsenide ) and InP ( indium phosphate ) . There are two normally used types of optical modulators in fibber ocular communicating systems: the electro soaking up modulator ( EAM ) and the Mach-Zehnder modulator ( MZM ) . Electro Absorption Modulator ( EAM ) EAM is little and can be integrated with the optical maser on the same substrate. An EAM combined with a CW optical maser beginning is known as an electro soaking up modulated optical maser. An EML consist of a CW DFB optical maser followed by an EAM, as shown above. Both devices can be integrated monolithically on the same InP substrate, taking to a compact design and low yoke losingss between the two devices. The EAM consists of an active semiconducting material part sandwiched in between a p- and n-doped bed, organizing a p-n junction. The EAM works on the rule known as Franz-Keldysh consequence, harmonizing to which the effectual set spread of a semiconducting material decreases with increasing electric field. Without bias electromotive force across the p-n junction, the set spread of the active part is merely broad plenty to be crystalline at the wavelength of the optical maser visible radiation. However, when a sufficiently big contrary prejudice is applied across the p-n junction, the effectual set spread is reduced to the point where the active part begins to absorb the optical maser visible radiation and therefore becomes opaque. In practical EAMs, the active part normally is structured as an MQW, supplying a stronger field-dependent soaking up consequence ( known as the quantum-confined Stark consequence ) . The relationship between the optical end product power, Pout, and the applied contrary electromotive force, Vm, of an EAM is described by the alleged shift curve. The undermentioned figure illustrates such a curve together with the accomplishable ER for a given shift electromotive force, Vsw. The electromotive force for exchanging the modulator from the on province to the off province, the shift electromotive force Vsw, typically is in the scope of 1.5 to 4 V, and the dynamic ER normally is in the scope of 11 to 13 dubnium. Because the electric field in the active part non merely modulates the soaking up features, but besides the refractile index, the EAM produces some chirp. However, this chirp normally is much less than that of a straight modulated optical maser. A little on-state ( prejudice ) electromotive force about 0 to 1 V frequently is applied to minimise the modulator chirp. Lithium Niobate Mach-Zehnder Modulator ( MZ Modulator ) Lithium Niobate Mach-Zehnder modulators are suited for usage in tube, long-haul ( LH ) and extremist long-haul ( ULH ) optical conveyance applications. The incoming optical signal is split every bit and is sent down two different optical waies. After a few centimeters, the two waies recombine, doing the optical moving ridges to interfere with each other. Such an agreement is known as an interferometer. If the stage displacement between the two moving ridges is 0A ° , so the intervention is constructive and the light strength at the end product is high ( on province ) ; if the stage displacement is 180A ° , so the intervention is destructive and the light strength is zero ( off province ) .The stage displacement, and therefore the end product strength, is controlled by altering the hold through one or both of the optical waies by agencies of the electro-optic consequence. This consequence occurs in some stuffs such as Li niobate ( LiNbO3 ) , some semiconducting materials, every bit good as some polymers and causes the refractile index to alter in the presence of an electric field. The guided-wave LiNbO3 interferometers used to modulate optical maser beams was fabricated every bit early as 1980. LiNbO3 has been the stuff of pick for electro-optic MZ modulator because it combines the desirable qualities of high electro-optic coefficient and high optical transparence in the near-infrared wavelength used for telecommunications.LiNbO3 MZ modulator can run satisfactorily over a wavelength scope of 1300 – 1550nm. It has been widely used in today ‘s high-velocity digital fiber communicating. LiNbO3 MZ modulators with stable operation over a broad temperature scope, really low bias-voltage impetus rates, and bias-free operation are commercially available. High-speed, low-chirp modulators are needed to take advantage of the broad bandwidth of optical fibers. Modulators have became a critical constituent both in the high-velocity time-domain-multiplexing ( TDM ) and wavelength-division-multiplexing systems ( WDM ) . Modulators have been traditionally used to modulate a uninterrupted moving ridge ( CW ) optical maser to bring forth the digital signal to be transmitted through a fiber. High-speed modulator with & gt ; 40GHz bandwidth has been fabricated. Low drive-voltage operation is the key to brining such modulators into practical usage because this eliminates the demand for high-octane electrical amplifiers. There is general a trade off between the velocity and the thrust electromotive force. The modulator chirp must besides be taken into consideration in the nexus design. The design of the modulator and the associated chirp can be used as a grade of freedom to widen nexus distance.Indium Phosphide Mach Zehnder Modulator with DWDM LaserFigure 1 shows the construction of the n-i-n optical wave guide. The construction consists of n-InP facing, an undoped InGaAlAs/InAlAs MQW ( I »PL = 1.37 I?m ) , an Fe-doped SI-InP bed ( Semi-Insulating InP bed ) , and an n-InP facing laminated in this sequence on an SI-InP substrate. In order to avoid losingss of the electrical signal and the optical signal caused by the p-type semiconducting material bed, both the signal and land electrode beds are made with n-type semiconducting material beds in which the loss is about 1/20 of that in the p-type. Besides, a high dislocation electromotive force feature is assured by infixing an SI-InP bed doped with Fe between the n-type clad bed and the i-MQW optical guiding bed. The SI-InP and i-MQW beds are 1.0 and 0.3 I?m. Since the electric field is applied in the limited part within the SI-InP and i-MQW beds, the efficiency of transition of the refractile index by the electro ocular consequence can be made larger. Therefore, low-tension operation and optical transition with a short electrode length can be realized. Fig. 1. Cross-sectional geometry of the n-i-n wave guide In LiNbO3 and III-V semiconducting materials, they are I?33 = 30.8 pm/V ( LiNbO3 modulator ) I?41 a†°? 1.4 pm/V ( InP modulator ) The coefficient in the semiconducting material is about 1/20 that of LiNbO3. However, while the refractile index of LiNbO3 is 2.2, that of the semiconducting material is about 3.2, so that the existent fluctuation of the refractile index in the semiconducting material is 1/7 that of LiNbO3. Therefore, when an optical modulator utilizing the electrooptic consequence is fabricated, the key to size decrease is how the high-density electric field is applied to the optical field. When the constructions of the optical wave guides are compared, the breadth of the n-i-n optical wave guide is A? that in the LiNbO3 modulator and the electrode spacing is from 1/30 to 1/50, so that an electric field more than 100 times as great is applied. Therefore, even with a shorter electrode, fluctuations of the refractile index take topographic point and stage transition can be achieved. To run an optical modulator, an electrode constellation with a distributed component type is effectual, since it is non band-limited by the CR clip changeless. In this manner, a going moving ridge electrode constellation is formed, along which the electrical signal propagates in the same way as the optical moving ridge for optical transition. In order to execute ultra-fast, high-efficiency optical transition with a going moving ridge electrode, two conditions, speed fiting between the optical and electrical moving ridges, and electric resistance matching with a drive system, are of import.a exposure of the bundle for the push-pull constellationFeaturesaˆ? Voltage programmable end product power control aˆ? Long draw public presentation with negligible punishment aˆ? Integral Etalon wavelength stabilization to within A ± 20 autopsy over life aˆ? Differential or individual 50 Ohm low electromotive force thrust transition input aˆ? Integral thermo-electric ice chest with preciseness NTC thermal resistor for temperature control aˆ? Hermetically sealed butterfly manner bundle with SMA RF connections aˆ? ITU Wavelengths available from 1527 nanometer to 1608 nanometer aˆ? 50 GHz channel spacing Parameter Conditions Min Typ Max UnitFIBER OPTIC TECHNOLOGY MICROWAVE AND MILLIMETER WAVE SYSTEMSSide igniter eliminates the dead-zone.Fibre ocular engineering, traditionally used for long draw communications, is happening new applications in short draw communicating systems in military airborne and shipboard platforms. New commercial services such as fibre-to-the-premise for broadband to the concern and place, broadband radio Internet, and digital picture services are being installed across the USA. The service suppliers and installers of these new systems require new methods of proving fibre ocular nexus public presentation in distances from a few metres to less than 1 Km. Optical clip sphere reflect metres ( OTDRs ) traditionally are used for long haul communicating systems but are limited in their usage in military systems and new commercial services due to dead zones. Artisan Laboratories Corporation has developed the Side igniter ( Patent Pending. ) ; a new trial and measuring system eliminates the dead-zone associated with OTDRs therefore doing it attractive for both military and new commercial applications. The Side igniter has a declaration of a few centimeters and is field portable.Radar and Communication System TestingRadar and communicating system trials require out-of-door scopes to find system public presentation. Using an out-of-door scope is expensive and clip devouring so alternate solutions are sought. Radar trials use fixed marks stat mis off from the radio detection and ranging for standardization. Microwave clip holds can be used to imitate marks that allow for proving in a research lab puting. Many bidirectional ( Patent pending ) microwave communicating channel simulator for two manner wireless have been developed the designed demonstrated transmittal at RF and micro-cook frequences that advanced microwave mark allow testing in a research lab environment.CommunicationssFibre ocular transmittal of digital informations for long draw and met ro entree is widely used in the telecommunications industry. As new services are being developed and offered, such as PCS, Broadband Wireless Internet, Digital Video, and Passive Optical Networks, new chances for parallel fibre ocular distribution are emerging. The presentation of a DWDM parallel fibre ocular system used to administer PCS and Broadband. Wireless Internet showed that administering RF over fibre up to 3 GHz has the advantage of simplifying the system architecture and cut downing base station complexness. In this presentation, a DWDM broadband photonic conveyance system was able to run into the demands for both IS-95 Personal Communications Services operating at 1.9 GHz and Broadband Wireless Internet operating over the set of 2.5 to 2.7 GHz. Each DWDM channel operates from 1 to 3 GHz and conveyances services up to 80 Km.Artisan Laboratories Corporation presently offers optical transmittal equipment suited for these applications.SpacecraftNew developments for the following coevals of communicating orbiters and infinite based radio detection and ranging systems include the application of active phased array aerial. In communicating systems, active phased array aerial offer on-board reconfigurability and multi-beam operation. These characteristics greatly cut down concern hazard by leting the beam form to alter depending on client demands. Fibre ocular distribution has been proposed for the transmittal of microwave signals from the orbiter coach to the phased array aerial. The advantage s of utilizing this engineering are higher stage stableness with temperature due to the fibre mechanical to belongingss ; lighter weight and flexibleness of the fiber ; and smaller size of the optical interconnect and optical power splitters. The usage of fiber besides allows for a high degree of integrating with antenna elements therefore cut downing size and weight. Developers are presently developing multi-level microwave photonic faculties that utilize such integrating. While these new developments show promise, fibre ocular distribution has the disadvantage of high power ingestion compared with inactive webs such as coaxal transmittal lines. The increased demand on power ingestion can do the usage of fiber in ballistic capsule prohibitive. To do fibre ocular signal distribution competitory with other transmittal engineerings, Scientists are presently developing a new type of fibre ocular engineering call Ultra visible radiation Fibre Optic Link that can significantly cut down the premier power ingestion of the distribution system.Satellite CommunicationssSATCOM applications make usage of fibre ocular links to have signals from the aerial at a distant location such as a shelter. These links are normally available and operate at an IF of 70 MHz. This architecture requires a low noise amplifier ( LNA ) , frequency interlingual rendition circuitry ( down- convertors ) , local oscillators, filters and a optical maser sender all located at the aerial sit e. Architecture allows for the transmittal of the RF or micro-cook frequence from the orbiter aerial straight over fiber to an integrated exposure receiving system and down-converter system located at a shelter. This architecture reduces the equipment required at the aerial site to the LNA and optical maser sender. Many research labs are offering a high public presentation Low Noise Optical Transmitter System and Integrated Photo receiver Down-Converter System that directs the signal straight from the aerial to a microwave modem. The Low Noise Optical Transmitter System is connected straight to satellite antenna systems extinguishing the demand for a separate low noise amplifier. The Integrated Photo receiver Down-Converter System is an all- in-one system that detects RF and microwave signals over fiber, amplifies the signals, and down-converts them to an intermediate frequence ( IF ) to interface with commercially available microwave informations modems. This system can observe RF over fiber at transition frequences up to 6 GHz and can change over the transition to an IF of 70 MHz or 140 MHz. In applications in which signals from multiple SATCOM aerial must be combined and distributed, DWDM parallel fibre ocular transmittal can be employed. DWDM sender and receiving system capableness include signal transmittal over 100 Km and bandwidth that exceeds multiple octaves with a CNR of 32 dubnium in the set of 950 to 2150 MHz.light beginnings used with fiber-opticOptical BeginningThe basic demands for the visible radiations beginnings used in optical communicating systems depend on the nature of the intended application ( long-haul communicating, local-area web, etc. ) . Both light-emitting rectifying tubes ( LEDs ) and laser rectifying tubes are used as beginnings. Laser rectifying tubes have the advantage of high power ( 10s of mW ) , high velocities, and narrow spectral breadth. LEDs have the advantages of huskiness, dependability, lower cost, long life-time, and simpleness of design. However, they suffer from comparatively broader line breadth and lower bandwidth. If we use external wavelength filters, this may diminish the power coupled. Even at a individual â€Å" colour † ( wavelength ) several manners may be present. Matching to a single-mode fibre will lose the power in these other manners. Therefore the chief characteristics for a light beginning are: 1 ) Power. The beginning power must be sufficiently high so that after transmittal through the fibre the standard signal is noticeable with the needed truth. This includes stableness of that power both in amplitude and frequence. 2 ) Speed. It must be possible to modulate the beginning power at the coveted rate. 3 ) Spectral line breadth. The beginning must hold a narrow spectral line breadth so that the consequence of chromatic scattering in the fibre is minimized. What is the consequence of a finite I†I » ( scattering ) on your system? 4 ) Noise. The beginning must be free of random fluctuations. 5 ) Emission wavelength. Contrast to fiber fading. 6 ) Emission pattern – The beginning power must be coupled to the fibre. Both light end product country and manner distribution in the beam can be of import. Light moving ridges travel in the optical fibre in the signifier of manners, each with a distinguishable spacial distribution, polarisation, extension invariable, group speed, and fading coefficient. Thus the fibre chosen for your system must run into the design ends after consideration of: 1 ) Multi-mode fibre whether step-index, or graded-index. Single-mode fibre. 2 ) Core size 3 ) Core refractile index profile 4 ) Bandwidth and scattering features 5 ) Attenuation dB/km ( including any connections and splicings ) which is a map of cardinal wavelength. Fibers are widely used in light applications. They are used as light ushers in medical and other applications where bright visible radiation demands to be shone on a mark without a clear line-of-sight way. In some edifices, optical fibres are used to route sunshine from the roof to other parts of the edifice ( see non-imaging optics ) . Optical fiber light is besides used for cosmetic applications, including marks, art, and unreal Christmas trees. Swarovski dress shops use optical fibres to light their crystal show windows from many different angles while merely using one light beginning. Optical fiber is an intrinsic portion of the light-transmitting concrete edifice merchandise, LiTraCon. A Frisbee illuminated by fiber optics A fiber-optic Christmas Tree A fiber-optic Christmas Tree Optical fiber is besides used in imaging optics. A consistent package of fibers is used, sometimes along with lenses, for a long, thin imagination device called an endoscope, which is used to see objects through a little hole. Medical endoscopes are used for minimally invasive exploratory or surgical processs ( endoscopy ) . Industrial endoscopes ( see fiberscope or bore range ) are used for inspecting anything difficult to make, such as jet engine insides. An optical fiber doped with certain rare-earth elements such as Er can be used as the addition medium of a optical maser or optical amplifier. Rare-earth doped optical fibres can be used to supply signal elaboration by splicing a short subdivision of doped fiber into a regular ( undoped ) optical fiber line. The doped fiber is optically pumped with a 2nd optical maser wavelength that is coupled into the line in add-on to the signal moving ridge. Both wavelengths of visible radiation are transmitted through the doped fiber, which transfers energy from the 2nd pump wavelength to the signal moving ridge. The procedure that causes the elaboration is stimulated emanation. Optical fibers doped with a wavelength shifter are used to roll up scintillation visible radiation in physics experiments. Optical fiber can be used to provide a low degree of power ( around one W ) to electronics situated in a hard electrical environment. Examples of this are electronics in high-octane aerial elements and measuring devices used in high electromotive force transmittal equipment. Optical fibers are besides used in fibre ocular gyroscopes, and other interferometers instruments.Principle of operationAn optical fiber is a cylindrical insulator wave guide that transmits light along its axis, by the procedure of entire internal contemplation. The fibre consists of a nucleus surrounded by a facing bed. To restrict the optical signal in the nucleus, the refractile index of the nucleus must be greater than that of the facing. The boundary between the nucleus and facing may either be disconnected, in step-index fiber, or gradual, in graded-index fiber.Multimode fiberThe extens ion of visible radiation through a multi-mode optical fiber. Fiber with big ( greater than 10A I?m ) core diameter may be analyzed by geometric optics. Such fiber is called multimode fiber, from the electromagnetic analysis ( see below ) . In a step-index multimode fiber, beams of visible radiation are guided along the fiber nucleus by entire internal contemplation. Rays that run into the core-cladding boundary at a high angle ( measured relation to a line normal to the boundary ) , greater than the critical angle for this boundary, are wholly reflected. The critical angle ( minimal angle for entire internal contemplation ) is determined by the difference in index of refraction between the nucleus and facing stuffs. Beams that meet the boundary at a low angle are refracted from the nucleus into the facing, and do non convey visible radiation and hence information along the fiber. The critical angle determines the credence angle of the fiber, frequently reported as a numerical aperture. A high numerical aperture allows visible radiation to prop agate down the fibre in beams both close to the axis and at assorted angles, leting efficient yoke of visible radiation into the fiber. However, this high numerical aperture increases the sum of scattering as beams at different angles have different way lengths and hence take different times to track the fiber. A low numerical aperture may hence be desirable. A typical single-mode optical fiber, demoing diameters of the constituent beds. Optical fiber types. In graded-index fibre, the index of refraction in the nucleus decreases continuously between the axis and the facing. This causes light beams to flex swimmingly as they approach the facing, instead than reflecting suddenly from the core-cladding boundary. The ensuing curving waies cut down multi-path scattering because high angle beams pass more through the lower-index fringe of the nucleus, instead than the high-index centre. The index profile is chosen to minimise the difference in axial extension velocities of the assorted beams in the fiber. This ideal index profile is really near to a parabolic relationship between the index and the distance from the axis.Single manner fiberFibre with a nucleus diameter less than approximately 10 times the wavelength of the propagating visible radiation can non be modelled utilizing geometric optics. Alternatively, it must be analyzed as an electromagnetic construction, by solution of Maxwell ‘s equations as reduced to the electromagnetic moving ridge equation. The electromagnetic analysis may besides be required to understand behaviors such as spot that occur when coherent visible radiation propagates in multi-mode fiber. As an optical wave guide, the fiber supports one or more confined transverse manners by which visible radiation can propagate along the fiber. Fibre back uping merely one manner is called single-mode or mono-mode fiber. The behavior of larger-core multimode fiber can besides be modelled utilizing the moving ridge equation, which shows that such fibre supports more than one manner of extension ( hence the name ) . The consequences of such modeling of multi-mode fiber about agree with the anticipations of geometric optics, if the fiber nucleus is big plenty to back up more than a few manners. The wave guide analysis shows that the light energy in the fiber is non wholly confined in the nucleus. Alternatively, particularly in single-mode fibers, a important fraction of the energy in the edge manner travels in the facing as an evanescent moving ridge. The most common type of single-mode fiber has a nucleus diameter of 8 to 10 I?m and is designed for usage in the close infrared. The manner construction depends on the wavelength of the visible radiation used, so that this fibre really supports a little figure of extra manners at seeable wavelengths. Multi-mode fiber, by comparing, is manufactured with nucleus diameters every bit little as 50 micrometres and every bit big as 100s of micrometres.Special-purpose fiberSome special-purpose optical fiber is constructed with a non-cylindrical nucleus and/or cladding bed, normally with an egg-shaped or rectangular cross-section. These include polarization-maintaining fiber and fiber designed to stamp down whispering gallery manner extension. Photonic crystal fiber is made with a regular form of index fluctuation ( frequently in the signifier of cylindrical holes that run along the length of the fibre ) . Such fibre utilizations diffraction effects alternatively of or in add-on to entire internal contemplation, to restrict visible radiation to the fiber ‘s nucleus. The belongingss of the fiber can be tailored to a broad assortment of applications.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Institutional Review Board Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Institutional Review Board - Assignment Example Therefore, IRB will protect the researchers by ensuring that they have not been implicated in issues involving violation of rules related to conducting researches. Furthermore, IRB protects reputation of the University by reducing chances of being involved in unethical research, which is conducted by their students and supervised by their lectures. On the other hand, IRB protects participants by ensuring that the research meets ethical standards while eliminating cases of unauthorized disclosure of their private information to other parties. The type of research that qualifies for Full review, which is also referred to as Level III involves subjects that require protection (St. Catherine University, 2013). Therefore, this form of research subjects the participants to a greater risk (Aurora University, 2013). In this case, the research involves nursing home residents, who are subjects to be protected. In fact, the research has exceptional consideration for protection that applied for their welfare due to vulnerability (The University of New Hampshire, 2012). Furthermore, the research will involve their personal information which require protect from the

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Best Approach to a Nuclear Iran Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Best Approach to a Nuclear Iran - Essay Example Dore Gold writes, â€Å"†¦outwardly Iran wanted the peaceful use of nuclear energy, but its hidden intention, according to Ramezanzadeh, was to engage in other activities.†(15)The international community is not willing to believe Iran and remains skeptical about its nuclear plan. Bush administration takes a tough stance and warns that production of nuclear weapons is on the agenda of Iran and that concern is shared by Obama administration. Gold argues about the administration’s initial attitude and writes, â€Å"Obama’s neutrality on the developments in Iran reached its height when he declared: â€Å"It’s important to understand that although there is some ferment taking place in Iran, that the difference between Ahmadinejad and Moussavi in terms of their actual policies may not be as great as advertised.†(5) But the position is not the same now though Iran consistently denies allegations that it owns intention to develop a bomb. Gold further tenders details that â€Å"†¦.intelligence data indicating that Iran was also working on a nuclear warhead that could be fitted on its ballistic missiles.†(35) How do the authors present these issues? The authors present the issues in a logical manner tendering facts in support of their arguments. Both of them share concern about America’s political and economic interests. They differ in details as for approach but both agree that Iran’s nuclear weapons program ambitions must be contained without further delay. What are their assumptions? Christopher Hemmer argues that patient diplomacy is the best approach to contain Iran’s nuclear program. According to him, Iran with nuclear weapons will pose challenges for the United States, but it is prudent to meet them through a policy of deterrence actively pursued, through containment and engagement and with active deliberations with America’s allies in the region. It is better to talk to Iran across t he table on a perennial basis, than challenge it through arms. Norman Podhooretz answers this question in a simple and straightforward style. He is not willing to trust Iran under any circumstances. According to him a nuclear-armed Iran is dangerous for all concerned countries and disastrous for America. Use of arms to checkmate Iran is less risky than allowing it to go scot-free with its weapon-development program. He advocates direct military intervention and destruction of Iran’s nuclear capabilities. What are their arguments? According to Hemmer, in pursuance the path of peaceful negotiations, America needs to look out for options like change of regime, preventive military strike, economic sanction and make appropriate evaluations about cost of action vs. costs of inaction. In any case, America cannot remain a silent spectator about the nuclear ambitions of Iran and need to take actions on an ongoing basis. Christopher Hemmer argues, â€Å"The United States has three str ategic interests in the Persian Gulf: maintaining the flow of oil onto world markets, preventing any hostile state from dominating the region, and minimising any terrorist threat.†(Parameters†¦) Norman Podhooretz writes, â€Å"I argued that deterrence could not be relied upon with a regime rules by Islamafacist revolutionaries who not only were ready to die for their beliefs but cared less about

Criminal justice Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Criminal justice - Essay Example These topics have been chosen as a function of their interconnected nature as well as the fact that it is this authors belief that each of these situations works to exponentially complicate and compound the primary issue that the US criminal justice system faces; namely overcrowding in its penitentiary system. The first issue that this analysis will consider relates to the issue that has evolved from what this author will deem â€Å"incarceration for profit†. Although few individuals in the United States are aware of this practice, the fact of the matter is that it has grown from an isolated incidence to a multi-million dollar a year industry. The central issue can be explained as a system whereby overburdened municipalities cannot immediately afford the massive expense that is called for in order to build a new penitentiary system. As a way to bridge this gap while making a substantial profit, private firms enter into the equation and offer the municipality a joint venture wh ich is oftentimes hard to resist. These firms offer to front the necessary capital to build the facility as well as staff it with private contracting security firms. The catch then comes as the municipality agrees to an extended lease of the facility. Although at face value this may seem an ingenious way for a private firm to work to alleviate the strains that a municipality may have with relation to prison overcrowding, it is however slightly more sinister than one would at first presume. Due to the fact that a private firm now has stake in the criminal justice system, a system that arguably the state and the state alone should have prevue over, the interests of rehabilitation and reform are placed as secondary to overall profit. Such a situation is counter to the very foundations of what the criminal justice system is supposed to provide to society. In this way, incarceration has become the primary focus of policy makers and local leaders whereas the needs of those incarcerated as well as the secondary objectives of rehabilitation and reform are all but forgotten in a drive to provide more â€Å"bed space† for existing and incoming offenders. This issue has been compounded by a host of policy decisions; some of these are beyond the scope of this individual analysis. However, two of the complicating factors will be discussed at greater length within this analysis. Likewise, the second challenge which faces the current criminal justice system is the result of the failed War on Drugs. The â€Å"war on drugs† began in 1971 as a mandate from President Richard M. Nixon. Rather than engage in a thesis length discussion as to the nature of drug usage and whether it is a victimless crime in society, this paper will focus on the obscenely high costs that are associated with the unsuccessful prosecution of this war on drugs. In 2010 alone, the United States federal government expended in excess of 15 billion USD to combat the drug problem in the United St ates.1 This figure expands when one considers the fact that taken on aggregate, state and local governments expended a further 25 billion dollars during the very same period. The expenditure alone however is only a portion of the problem. Drug related arrests account for in excess of 13% of all arrests that are made; more than any other crime with respect to

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Discussion on Guibert of Nogent Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Discussion on Guibert of Nogent - Essay Example ...but when reason returns, I repent that I have yielded to the lust of my heart when my soul with unwilling heaviness sinks on a dunghill for its bed (Bland, 1)." There is a deep seated desire to know the will of God and to know him, rather the person should empty himself and come to know his Creator. Reading through the monk's memoirs, he sees that the culture around him is submerged in wealth and sin. And all that learning is of no use it the person does not open his heart to the Lord Jesus Christ. "...Unless Christ shall open to him the doors of learning with the key of knowledge, without doubt every teacher shall spend himself in vain on dull ears. Therefore, let every wise man be foolish to claim anything as his own but sin (Bland 2)." Everything is associated with the holy feasts and the days they fall on as a symbol of some divine meaning of why things occurred. "Now the feast of the Blessed Martin was close at hand, in fact the next day (Bland 14)." A person suffers a fate or misfortune because divine intervention has decided to punish the individual for his or her wrong doings-"the man who tries to please a treacherous foe in fear of being bitten, by the just judgment of heaven gets hurt by him and everyone else (Bland 14)." Heaven's decision in the matter is seen as fair and just. The air of Christianity is soaked to the brim with guilt and punishment, justice and retribution although there are numerous times in Guibert's writings where he mentions the mercies of the Lord and his mother's help in our daily lives. The prevailing feature of Christianity in Guibert's time as Guibert saw them was either a person knew the Christian faith and lived by its rules or they didn't and hence committed sacrilegious acts by their very nature of being ignorant in matters of what constitutes as holy and requiring reverence. "And since such words may not be uttered by a Christian's lips, and must cause pious ears to shudder with detestation, we suppress them. Although he praised the Jews , by the Jews he was regarded as a madman and whilst approving their religion in word, he actually practiced ours (Bland 16)." Even profanity was considered as intolerable to ears that were sensitive to them and considered such speech as not characteristic with the Christian faith and contrary to the Christian life. And when man could not do much to intervene or stop the particular person from carrying on with their blasphemies, we see through Guibert that heaven itself takes care of the problem :"When the Virgin Mother, Que en of all, could no longer endure the blasphemies of this corrupt man, as he was entering from a royal expedition, on approaching the city, there appeared a great band of his friends the devils and he coming home with his hair disordered and out of his wits, repulsed his wife and lay with that old woman and that night fell ill of a mortal disease (Bland 17)." Furthermore, there resounds in the 1100s the echo of what beauty is to the individual, the abbot asks us to be more concerned with the beauty of the soul than the appearance of the body. Bland depicts how Guibert of Nogent asks God to infuse beauty with

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Copper pipe Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Copper pipe - Research Paper Example The fluid that can evaporate is chosen from many available fluids that do not freeze at normal temperatures. Solar collectors that have 0.5 inches have the advantage of eliminating the use of water in the collector system. In addition, the tank has an insulator that can be fitted with a backup pre-heater 32. This is used to establish a minimum system thermal output when there is no enough sunshine (Fred, 2010). Moreover, it greatly reduces freeze susceptibility compared to solar systems that has 1 inch copper. Due to the solar collector system being vented to the atmosphere, those with 0.5 copper inch are easy to assemble and maintain thus allowing excellent heat transfer characteristics (Modular passive solar heating system US 4505261 A, 2010). It also helps in heat exchanger that penetrates the diameter of the tank instead of contracting the periphery of the tank hence providing a lower system profile. Finally, they are able to use less energy and they are

Monday, September 23, 2019

Globalization and Feminism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Globalization and Feminism - Essay Example The effects of globalization on the theories of feminism establish the relationship between the capital and gender, exploitation of the women workforce. Feminism has played a significant role in the process of globalization and economic progress all over the world. From the perspective of feminism, the phenomenon of globalization has led to the discrimination of gender in terms of control over capital and resources (Hawkesworth, 2006, p.37). The male sections of the society has dominated and gained control over the majority of resources, opportunities of livelihood and employment. There are, however, instances where the women have been able to grab the opportunities in the course of economic progress, a major section of the women labour force have lost control over their work in the process of globalization. Women have obtained job opportunities in the skilled areas of Information Technology, Computer software, etc, the semi and unskilled women labours, agricultural workers have lost their occupation to the forces of globalization. Discussion: globalization and feminism The theories of feminism are based primarily on two basic assumptions. ... On one side, when the increase in participation of women in the labour force have created job opportunities and provided a means of livelihood and independence to women, the women on the other hand has also been subjected to discrimination and humiliation. The women in the Middle-East are hired as working maids for the families in order to support the homemakers of the family. Thus the engagement of a woman labour for the help of another woman is an act of exploitation (Sarkar, 2007, p.5). The rise in the income level of the families due to the phenomenon of globalization has provided jobs to the women section of the society and at the same time increased their possibility of exploitation apart from providing them economic freedom. Globalization has produced new discourse in various field of occupation. The involvement of several sections of the society has produced new instances in the field of politics. The feminists believe that the phenomenon of globalization has not been able to produce a condition of equality among the men and the women. There have been various landmark initiatives in the political course of action like the increase in the number of women representatives in the parliament, activities for ensuring women rights, education and livelihood for women, etc. Although the economic and political scenario has changed in the process of globalization, the exploitation and the discrimination towards women have not changed to a great deal (Beneria, 2003, p.47). The process of globalization is challenged by the various political and social resistances. The cultural and religious roots of the society could not easily be transformed and the spread of economic activities as globalization

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Internship Essay Example for Free

Internship Essay Getting an opportunity to work with Crown Global Consulting, LLC as an intern was a great accomplishment for me owing to the great value the internship has afforded me. Contrary to what I had expected, the company, located in Lincoln, offers me with the opportunity to interact with other organizations and to virtually do all that is in line with human resource management, employee relations, and career development. I started off with a formal interview with the company’s human resources manager; and having applied for the internship via the internet I was a bit surprised when the interview centered on my personal as well as professional skills. Specifically, the company needed an intern capable of leading, deciding, informing, advising, managing problems and evaluating results. In my opinion, my military and international travel experience is what convinced the manager to take me on board. Discussion I started my internship in May 2010 and I hope to finish it in December 2010. As part of my learning objects, I will be involved in supporting the HR manager in employee recognition programs and career development. To achieve this, I work closely with the HR manager and so get to learn a lot about the different ways through which companies reward their employees. In most cases, the employees are rewarded for their outstanding performance, excellent attendance records each year, participation in activities sponsored by the company, and volunteering their service for the agencies that the company is involved with. As part of career development, employees are encouraged to further their education and training. The costs thereof are covered by the company. Serving as a liaison officer with the communities and/or outside agencies regarding their human resource programs, I have had the chance to work with the American Heart Association (AHA); specifically working with local AHA personnel in submitting an award application for the company. I have had to gather information on what the company does to promote healthy living. The vendors we have worked with provide us with healthy food options and we had exercise programs available for the employees to take part in. I had to go through past records to find out how many employees had participated in the health screening program that was provided by the company. This helped me to understand what the company’s past practices were. I also got to work with several food vendors that offered catering services at the company’s luncheons. I have also been involved in providing guidance in matters of employment law. I got to research on some of the grievances that were filed against the company; and did research on the historical actions the company took whenever employees filed grievances against it. I had to search past records and ascertain how each situation was handled, the most important thing being to understand why the decision was made in that manner. I have come to understand that the greatest challenges that face the company and which need human resource representatives in the company to work on are the annual and family medical leaves. I have to admit that I found this to be the hardest part to learn. There were many rules and laws that could be applied to situations and I had to look at every situation differently and from different angles before making any decision. It was made clear to me never to make any decision without the full knowledge of the case as it could end up in court. I identified a few FMLA cases where employees had gone for long periods of time without proper notification from the relevant health practitioners. Part of my duties during the internship has been to promote healthy lifestyles and the project I have worked on is to promote a walking program which entailed walking from Lincoln, NE to Hawaii. I have had to keep track of the number of miles covered, the number of people that took part in the program, and determine the amount of money that had to be spent on prizes. For prizes, we obtained baseball tickets to a local game, gift cards, and/or Hawaiian-themed prizes. This was the most rewarding part of my internship for it was an ideal avenue for me to meet people including the employees. The hardest part of working in human relations has been ensuring that I am well versed with the standards of the Affirmative Actions (AA) plan. Each year we have the Department of Labor officials coming and assessing the type of employees that we have working in the company. They consider the diversity of Lincoln and require that businesses have the same type of diversity in their workforce. After the evaluation, we get a proposal indicating where we are meeting the requirements and the areas we need to improve on. The majority of our employees are White Americans, indicating that our diversity is not enough. My concern was how recruitment has to be done in order to balance between diversity and qualification but I came to understand that although the most qualified people ought to be employed, the company has to strive to meet the AA requirements. I also learned that the company has to keep good records of all the applicants and be able to offer the reasons for selecting the ones that got hired. One of the most interesting things about my internship was that I worked with a union that was responsible for the protection of the employees. The union files grievances if the employees are being treated unfairly. However, in my own opinion, there was no need for such a union because there are enough laws in place to protect workers. This is especially so because to be members employees have to pay a monthly fee. Conclusion My internship has been a most fulfilling experience. On the whole, I have learned a lot regarding dealing with different people in different situations. This has been a lesson that is so invaluable for me. I have also been able to learn good communication skills and have become a team player. On a general note, I think I have had much to learn about the real business world. For me, therefore, my internship at Crown Global Consulting, LLC has offered me valuable learning experience.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Security Threats In Cloud Computing

Security Threats In Cloud Computing What is cloud computing? To explain Cloud computing in simple words, lets just say it is Internet computing, if we observe closely the internet is basically the collection of cloud; thus, the cloud computing word can be elaborated as using the internet, to its full potential, to provide organization and people, technology enabled oriented services. Cloud computing let consumers access, by the help of the internet, resources online from any corner of the world without the need to worry about physical/technical maintenance and management issues of the real original resources. What is cloud computing security? To keep it in simple words, cloud security actually points out to a broad set of rules/regulation or policies, maybe set of technologies, or controls deployed solely for the sake of, to protect application data, and the linked infrastructure of cloud computing from the malicious intruder. If all seems good how come security threat became an issue? The cloud computing technology is on the verge of peak. Its really a wonderful news for enterprises and organization who want to get things done with more quickness and easiness as compared to past times but one need to keep their vision open to the possibility of data hijack. The famous Company IBM lies on top of companies providing cloud security with many options in hand to reduce risk. The 9 biggest threats right now according to a report that was released, on 29 February, from the Cloud Security Alliance are: Security Breach in terms of data The companies providing cloud environment face more commonly the same threat i.e. traditional corporate, yet due to the huge amount of data stored on their private servers, they are more vulnerable to the eyes of hackers or intruders. The information being leaked from their servers or exposed becomes headline showing the drawback of the security area. Disaster occur when information such as trade secret, health information or intellectual property data are breached If such event occurs in which hacker or intruder outrun the security checks of cloud environment and data breach occur, then the organization providing the facility may end being washed up on the shore just like a broken ship because they may be filed or sued by the potential customers. To protect their environment, normally cloud owners, deploy security protocols in their services field but in the cloud organizations are responsible for protecting their own data Broken authentication Compromised credentials The most common reasons for data breach are weak passwords, poor key lax authentication or certificate management. Companies often strive with identity management, as they try to give or deny permissions as defined to the users job role. More important, keeping in view, they sometimes dont or forget to remove access of user when a job function changes or when a user leaves the environment of organization. The ways of multifactor authentication systems such as phone-based authentication, one-time passwords smartcards tends to protect cloud services because this make it quite harder for attackers, hacker to log or go in to access with stolen passwords. Many developers dont realize the danger of embedding credentials in source code and make such mistake and upload the source code on famous site where source code is easily accessible such as GitHub and bit bucket. APIs Hacked interfaces Normally every cloud application and service now gives APIs access to its users. IT teams use APIs and interfaces to organize and connect with cloud pool, including those that offer cloud management, provisioning, monitoring, and orchestration. The availability and security of cloud services from authentication to encryption and access control and activity monitoring depend on the security level of that particular API. Risk level increases with commonly third parties that tends to rely on APIs and build an infrastructure on these interfaces, as organizations may feel the need to expose or portray more credentials or service, the CSA warned. Weak APIs and interfaces expose company to security concerns related to integrity, confidentiality, accountability, and availability. APIs and interfaces are the most exposed and weak part of a system because theyre usually accessible and easily gained access from the open Internet. Misuse system vulnerabilities Exploitable bugs, or system vulnerabilities in application and programs, are not new, but theyve become rapidly a huge problem with the inclusion of multitenancy in cloud computing services. Organizations handshake databases, memory and other resources in close range to one another, giving chance to new possible attack surfaces. Hijacking of Account Software exploits, fraud and phishing are still the most successful way for intruders for back door gain access. Above all that, cloud services add a whole new level of dimension to the possibilities of threat because hackers can eavesdrop on various activities, modify data and manipulate transactions. Not only that, hackers may also use cloud application for their advantage to launch various other attacks. Cloud service provider should prohibit user from sharing of account security credentials between services and users Malicious insiders The threat from inside has many faces: a former or current employee, a contractor, system administrator, business partner or a contractor. In a cloud system scenario, a malicious insider can destroy or burn the whole infrastructures to ground or manipulate system data. Systems that solely depend on the various cloud service provider for security implementation, such as data or key encryption, are at huge risk. The parasite Advantage persistent threat (APT) APTs normally and blend in normal traffic move through the network, so it becomes difficult to detect. The major cloud service providers make sure to apply advanced encryption techniques to prevent threat such as APTs from infiltrating or entering their building infrastructure. Common points of entering in the system include direct attacks, spear phishing, USB or pen drives loaded with malware injection, and third-party compromised software networks. Totally Permanent loss of data With the day to day enhancement and cloud services of getting matured, reports of permanent loss of data due to error from provider have vanished into thin air. But intruders or malicious hackers are famous to white wash cloud data just to harm businesses and bring the service provider to ground, and cloud data provider centers are at risk to natural disasters as any common facility. Cloud service providers advice or recommend their user to distribute their data and applications across various multiple layers of zones for much more added protection. Abuse of cloud service power The disaster that can occur from the misuse of cloud service power can never be mapped of any graph scale. It has the tendency to supportÂÂ   various criminal activities such as using the resources of cloud technology to break in to gain encryption key in order to launch various attack such as sending phishing email, messages or filling mailbox with spam mails, launching famous DDoS attack to shut down server or hosting malicious content.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Point of View and Theme in Heart of Darkness Essay example -- Heart Da

Point of View and Theme in Heart of Darkness       In Joseph Conrad's novel Heart of Darkness the story of Marlow, an Englishman travelling physically up an unnamed river in Africa and psychologically into the human possibility, is related to the reader through several narrational voices. The primary first-person narrator is an Englishman aboard the yawl, the 'Nellie', who relates the story as it is told to him by Marlow. Within Marlow's narrative are several instances when Marlow relies upon others, such as the Russian, the brickmaker and the Manager at the central station, for information. Therefore, through complicated narrational structure resulting from the polyphonous account, Conrad can already represent to the reader the theme of the shifting nature of reality. As each narrator relates what is important to them, the audience must realise that each voice edits, absents information and is affected by their own experiences and the culture and ideology within which they judge and respond. Therefore the text reveals itself as non-essentialist. It is also seen through the narratorial voices, who are all significantly European males, although challenging the received view of imperial praxis as glorious and daring, a racist and patriarchal text, which eventually, through Marlow's own assimilation of the ideology of his time, reinscribes and replicates that which it attempts to criticise:   European action in Africa.       Marlow quickly interrogates colonialism through his statement:    "The conquest of the world which mostly means the taking it away from those who have a different complexion or slightly flatter noses than ourselves, is not a pretty thing when you look into it too much."    So that t... ...hrough the confident and mediating narrative account the reader receives through Marlow and the unnamed First narration Conrad is able to interrogate the theme of the corruption and economic motivations behind colonids praxis in the novel Heart of Darkness. It is, however, unconsciously, also made clear that this text, its narrator and its author are products of their time and ideology, as it consistantly represents characters and situations in racist and patriarchal terms, so that the reader is also aware of the Eurocentric and ethnocentric themes running through the novella.    Bibliography    Conrad, J.   Heart of Darkness. London: Penguin Group.   1995    Cole, David W., and Kenneth B. Grant. "Conrad's Heart of Darkness." The Explicator 54.1 1995.    Jean-Aubry, George. Joseph Conrad: Life and Letters. Vol. 1. New York: Page, 1966.   

Thursday, September 19, 2019

The Struggle for Freedom in Yellow Wallpaper and Story of an Hour

Struggle for Freedom in The Yellow Wallpaper and The Story of an Hour    "The Yellow Wallpaper" and "The Story of an Hour" are two very similar stories. Both deal with middle-aged women who long to attain their freedom. They share the same theme, but convey the message differently in terms of style and quality. The two stories are about women who are fighting for freedom, happiness, and the ability to be truly expressive in any way possible. The greatest similarity is between the female protagonists of each story. Each woman is desperately searching for freedom, but not allowed to have it. In "The Yellow Wallpaper," the female protagonist depressed. To treat her sickness, she is sent with her husband to live in a haunted mansion that is supposed to make her better, but it only mak... ...opin, Kate. "The Story of an Hour." In Literature and Its Writers: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Ann Charters and Samuel Charters, Eds. Boston: Bedford Books, 1997. 158-159. Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. "The Yellow Wallpaper." In Literature and Its Writers: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Ann Charters and Samuel Charters, Eds. Boston: Bedford Books, 1997. 230-242.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Religious Ceremonies In Theatre :: essays research papers fc

Theatre as a Religious Ceremony   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"The drama in Greece was inextricably bound up with religious feeling and religious observance.† (Cheney 33) The citizens of the Greek states were the first European communities to raise dramatic performances to the level of an art. Furthermore, the Greek playwrights still exercise a potent creative force, and many modern dramatists find strong relationships between these legendary themes and modern conditions. The Greek’s religion is wholly responsible for the creation of all facets of early Greek theatre; whether it is the content of the plays, or the immense size of the theaters required to accommodate the attendance of the city’s men.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Although much is speculated about the origins of early Greek theater, it may be stated that the â€Å"source of tragedy is to be found in choric dithyrambs sung in honor of the god Dionysus† (Nicoll 9). The performance took place in an open-air theater. The word tragedy is derived from the term â€Å"tragedia† or â€Å"goat-song†, named for the goat skins the chorus wore in the performance. Originally these songs were improvised and rhapsodical as time passed by they were â€Å"poetized or rendered literary† (Nicoll 9). The word â€Å"chorus† meant â€Å"dance or â€Å"dancing ground†, which was how dance evolved into the drama. Members of the chorus were characters in the play that commented on the action. They drew the audience into the play and reflected the audience’s reactions. The change from freelance song to theatre was obtained at the hands of a Greek named Thespis. He turned what was originally a song lea der, or priest, into an actor whose words were answered by a chanting chorus. Thespis also â€Å"changed the subject matter of theatre events, expanding them to deal not solely on stories of Dionysus† (Nicoll 9). In the sixth century B.C., drama had been born in Greece and with the introduction of a second actor and later a third, this art form was ready to mature at the hands of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  These festivals grew in size and complexity, especially in Athens, where the largest of these festivals were held and only the premier playwrights released their plays. These prestigious and elaborate plays were performed at dramatic festivals. The two main festivals were the Feast of the Winepress in January and the City Dionysia at the end of March. The Proceeding began with the procession of choruses and actors of the three competing poets.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Advantages and disadvantages of the doctrine of precedent Essay

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the doctrine of precedent and how judges may make new law. Include 1 case where judges have made new law. The doctrine of precedent is an important feature of judge-made law (common law). This doctrine means that similar disputes should be decided by reference to the same legal principles, and that lower courts are bound to follow the decisions of higher courts within the same court hierarchy. There are both advantages and disadvantages of the doctrine of precedent and the way in which judges may make new law. An advantage of judge made law is that decisions are based on principle – meaning that judges are not making up the law as they go. The doctrine of precedent provides for consistency in the application of the law, which therefore promotes justice and fairness (as the courts will decide ‘like’ cases in the same way). There is also some degree of certainty, as the outcome of cases can be predicted based on previous decisions. The advantage of precedent is that it allows for the law to grow to meet new situations, and to be flexible to meet changing needs – which therefore provides for the efficient operation of the legal system. On the other hand, judge-made law is slow to evolve. The courts are not free to make law in the same sense as parliament. Unlike parliament, judges cannot make law as an immediate response to a community demand or when a general need is perceived. A disadvantage of precedent is that rigidity and inflexibility may develop where judges are reluctant to depart out-of-date or inappropriate precedents. Uncertainty can also arise where there is more than one precedent that may apply to a particular set of circumstances. Change may be slow and irregular because change can only occur when a complainant has a significant case that is subject to an appeal. Given the cost of litigation, not all complainants may be prepared to persist with a legal action under these circumstances. Also, the law develops retrospectively meaning that a problem must exist before the court will consider the circumstances – it does not operate to avoid possible conflicts. Landmark decisions (from which new principles develop) are few and far between. They usually arise from cases on appeal heard in the highest courts. An example of an Australian case where judges have made new law is Grant v. Australian Knitting Mills [1936] AC 85. This case involved similar  circumstances to the landmark case of Donoghue v Stevenson, [1932] AC 562. In this case the plaintiff, Dr. Grant, bought some woollen underwear from a store. The underwear had been manufactured by the Australian Knitting Mills Ltd. Dr. Grant suffered dermatitis as a result of wearing the woollen underwear. It was later discovered that the condition was caused by the excessive use of chemicals in the process used to make the underwear. According to the doctrine of precedent, the court would have applied the rule of law stated in Donoghue v. Stevenson to the case of Grant v. Australian Knitting Mills. Like Mrs. Donoghue, Dr. Grant was deemed to be a ‘neighbour’. He was a person who was closely and directly affected by the act of the manufacturer and the manufacturer ought to have had him in mind as being affected when preparing the underwear. The manufacturer had a duty to take reasonable care to avoid acts that they could reasonably foresee would be likely to injure consumers such as Dr. Grant. Dr. Grant was successful in his claim for damages. This was the first Australian case to adopt the legal principle of negligence. In summary, judges make laws by comparing similar situations and following sets of principles to determine outcomes. This is known as the doctrine of precedent and it creates common law – which has both advantages and disadvantages.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Perception and Learning Essay

Learning and Perception are intertwined. They are relatively connected with each other. When we say Learning, it is a term used referring to a relatively permanent change in behavior that is a result of past experience or practice. It includes classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and perceptual learning. While Perception on the other hand, is a general term referring to the awareness of objects, qualities, or events stimulating the sense organs; it also refers to a person’s experience of the world. So when one perceives something through his environment, he then learns it and somehow puts it into practice (Hulse, Deese, & Egeth, 1975). The brain has a strong tendency to organize various stimuli into objects which are seen as figures on grounds. Stability in our world is provided by our various perceptual constancies. Like in death, we perceive death because we make us of several monocular and binocular cues. These general principles help us to understand how perception works. The organisms or individual’s stage of development affects or influences the things he perceives through the things he learned. Just about everything we learn is partly a learning of new perceptions. And our previous learning affects our present perceptions, especially when the learning has been emotional or unusually meaningful (Hochberg, 1964, p. 287). . A gun maybe perceived quite differently by a woman whose husband has been killed in a hunting accident and by a child who is fascinated with cowboys. To the child the gun is a toy associated with pleasurable excitement, with fantasies of range wars and of galloping horses. To bereaved wife the gun is a deadly weapon associated with sadness and fear. For example, a young woman who fell in love and was broken hearted already has learned a lesson not to give everything the next time her heart beats again. Another example is, a baby who tries to learn to walk tries his very best to know how to balance, even though he experiences fall sometimes he still tries his best to do it and learn how to walk. So before it we can call it learning from their mistakes, the change must be relatively permanent; it must last a fairly long time. These rules out changes in behavior due to motivation, fatigue, adaptation, or sensitivity of the organism. Learning contributes much to perception, but it is only one ingredient. Many factors both learned and unlearned, affect what the person actually does. Even so, an individual’s performance is all that we can measure. We must infer, by appropriate control or knowledge of the conditions affecting perception, when perception has been changed through learning and when it has been changed by other factors (King, 1971, p. 79-80). Moreover, learned and unlearned factors interact in complex ways. For example, many kinds of behavior depend on perception. When a student has learned that he should study for him to succeed then he will likely do it because he believes; which is his perception, meaning he is aware of; that when finishes his studies that individual will succeed.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Automobile and Large Mass

There was once a little boy of 6 years old called Lewis. One day, as he was looking out of the car window on his way to school, he discovered that a large mass of grey smoke was forming just above his dad’s car. Somewhat alarmed, Lewis looked at the other cars on the road to find out if they too had a cloud of grey smoke chasing them. To Lewis’ surprise,  all the cars travelling on the motorway had the grey smoke hovering around them. There was once a little boy of 6 years old called Lewis. One day, as he was looking out of the car window on his way to school, he discovered that a large mass of grey smoke was forming just above his dad’s car.Somewhat alarmed, Lewis looked at the other cars on the road to find out if they too had a cloud of grey smoke chasing them. To Lewis’ surprise,  all the cars travelling on the motorway had the grey smoke hovering around them. There was once a little boy of 6 years old called Lewis. One day, as he was looking out o f the car window on his way to school, he discovered that a large mass of grey smoke was forming just above his dad’s car. Somewhat alarmed, Lewis looked at the other cars on the road to find out if they too had a cloud of grey smoke chasing them.To Lewis’ surprise,  all the cars travelling on the motorway had the grey smoke hovering around them. There was once a little boy of 6 years old called Lewis. One day, as he was looking out of the car window on his way to school, he discovered that a large mass of grey smoke was forming just above his dad’s car. Somewhat alarmed, Lewis looked at the other cars on the road to find out if they too had a cloud of grey smoke chasing them. To Lewis’ surprise,  all the cars travelling on the motorway had the grey smoke hovering around them. There was once a little boy of 6 years old called Lewis.One day, as he was looking out of the car window on his way to school, he discovered that a large mass of grey smoke was forming just above his dad’s car. Somewhat alarmed, Lewis looked at the other cars on the road to find out if they too had a cloud of grey smoke chasing them. To Lewis’ surprise,  all the cars travelling on the motorway had the grey smoke hovering around them. There was once a little boy of 6 years old called Lewis. One day, as he was looking out of the car window on his way to school, he discovered that a large mass of grey smoke was forming just above his dad’s car.Somewhat alarmed, Lewis looked at the other cars on the road to find out if they too had a cloud of grey smoke chasing them. To Lewis’ surprise,  all the cars travelling on the motorway had the grey smoke hovering around them. So Lewis asked his father: â€Å"Dad, what’s that grey smoke above our cars? † Lewis’ father was a little surprised by the question, but answered: â€Å"Well, Lewis, it’s called pollution. † There was once a little boy of 6 years o ld called Lewis. One day, as he was looking out of the car window on his way to school, he discovered that a large mass of grey smoke was forming just above his dad’s car.Somewhat alarmed, Lewis looked at the other cars on the road to find out if they too had a cloud of grey smoke chasing them. To Lewis’ surprise,  all the cars travelling on the motorway had the grey smoke hovering around them. So Lewis asked his father: â€Å"Dad, what’s that grey smoke above our cars? † Lewis’ father was a little surprised by the question, but answered: â€Å"Well, Lewis, it’s called pollution. † There was once a little boy of 6 years old called Lewis. One day, as he was looking out of the car window on his way to school, he discovered that a large mass of grey smoke was forming just above his dad’s car.Somewhat alarmed, Lewis looked at the other cars on the road to find out if they too had a cloud of grey smoke chasing them. To Lewisâ€⠄¢ surprise,  all the cars travelling on the motorway had the grey smoke hovering around them. So Lewis asked his father: â€Å"Dad, what’s that grey smoke above our cars? † Lewis’ father was a little surprised by the question, but answered: â€Å"Well, Lewis, it’s called pollution. † There was once a little boy of 6 years old called Lewis. One day, as he was looking out of the car window on his way to school, he discovered that a large mass of grey smoke was forming just above his dad’s car.Somewhat alarmed, Lewis looked at the other cars on the road to find out if they too had a cloud of grey smoke chasing them. To Lewis’ surprise,  all the cars travelling on the motorway had the grey smoke hovering around them. So Lewis asked his father: â€Å"Dad, what’s that grey smoke above our cars? † Lewis’ father was a little surprised by the question, but answered: â€Å"Well, Lewis, it’s called pollution. â €  â€Å"Pollution? What’s pollution? † asked Lewis, waiting intrigued for his father’s answer. â€Å"Well, for example, it’s that grey smoke you can see above our cars.Cars that run on petrol or diesel give off gasses into the atmosphere, which are very bad for all living beings and the planet too. Today you can see a lot of the grey smoke because it hasn’t rained for a long time,† answered his father. There was once a little boy of 6 years old called Lewis. One day, as he was looking out of the car window on his way to school, he discovered that a large mass of grey smoke was forming just above his dad’s car. Somewhat alarmed, Lewis looked at the other cars on the road to find out if they too had a cloud of grey smoke chasing them.To Lewis’ surprise,  all the cars travelling on the motorway had the grey smoke hovering around them. So Lewis asked his father: â€Å"Dad, what’s that grey smoke above our cars? † Lewis’ father was a little surprised by the question, but answered: â€Å"Well, Lewis, it’s called pollution. † â€Å"Pollution? What’s pollution? † asked Lewis, waiting intrigued for his father’s answer. â€Å"Well, for example, it’s that grey smoke you can see above our cars. Cars that run on petrol or diesel give off gasses into the atmosphere, which are very bad for all living beings and the planet too.Today you can see a lot of the grey smoke because it hasn’t rained for a long time,† answered his father. There was once a little boy of 6 years old called Lewis. One day, as he was looking out of the car window on his way to school, he discovered that a large mass of grey smoke was forming just above his dad’s car. Somewhat alarmed, Lewis looked at the other cars on the road to find out if they too had a There was once a little boy of 6 years old called Lewis. One day, as he was looking out of the car window on his way to school, he discovered that a large mass of grey smoke was forming just above his dad’s car.Somewhat alarmed, Lewis looked at the other cars on the road to find out if they too had a cloud of grey smoke chasing them. To Lewis’ surprise,  all the cars travelling on the motorway had the grey smoke hovering around them. So Lewis asked his father: â€Å"Dad, what’s that grey smoke above our cars? † Lewis’ father was a little surprised by the question, but answered: â€Å"Well, Lewis, it’s called pollution. † â€Å"Pollution? What’s pollution? † asked Lewis, waiting intrigued for his father’s answer. â€Å"Well, for example, it’s that grey smoke you can see above our cars.Cars that run on petrol or diesel give off gasses into the atmosphere, which are very bad for all living beings and the planet too. Today you can see a lot of the grey smoke because it hasn’t rained for a long time,† answered his father. cloud of grey smoke chasing them. To Lewis’ surprise,  all the cars travelling on the motorway had the grey smoke hovering around them. So Lewis asked his father: â€Å"Dad, what’s that grey smoke above our cars? † Lewis’ father was a little surprised by the question, but answered: â€Å"Well, Lewis, it’s called pollution. † â€Å"Pollution? What’s pollution? asked Lewis, waiting intrigued for his father’s answer. â€Å"Well, for example, it’s that grey smoke you can see above our cars. Cars that run on petrol or diesel give off gasses into the atmosphere, which are very bad for all living beings and the planet too. Today you can see a lot of the grey smoke because it hasn’t rained for a long time,† answered his father. d by the question, but answered: â€Å"Well, Lewis, it’s called pollution. † â€Å"Pollution? What’s pollution? † asked Lewis, waiting i ntrigued for his father’s answer. â€Å"Well, for example, it’s that grey smoke you can see above our cars.Cars that run on petrol or diesel give off gasses into the atmosphere, which are very bad for all living beings and the planet too. Today you can see a lot of the grey smoke because it hasn’t rained for a long time,† answered his father. Lewis spent a while pondering on this, and began to put two and two together. If the  grey smoke was bad, and it was all because of cars, then  why were there so many cars on the road? â€Å"Dad,† said Lewis slowly, â€Å"If the grey smoke is pollution and is bad for us,  why are we going to school in a car? † â€Å"So I can get to work on time, son.The bus or metro would make us late,† answered his father. It was Spring. As soon as the cold weather went, it came back again. The sun seemed ashamed to show his smily face for more than the odd morning. To top it all, loads of people were sick . A spectacular chucking-up bug was going around the school. If anyone looked so much as a bit pasty in class, the teacher would grab an empty litter bin and tell them to hold it close by. Minutes later the school secretary would be calling Little So and So’s mother and telling her to get over quickly and collect her sick child.The bug even got poor Isis, who was NEVER off school. Like everything else about her, Isis’s attendance record was usually perfect – but not this week, because there was no way she could come in. She texted Katie: â€Å"Poor me, I feel so rotten! Chucked up 6 times. Is that a world record? † Katie had so far escaped the bug. She was very careful about washing her hands and not going near anyone who coughed or spluttered. She asked her mother what could be done for Isis, and she suggested an ancient witch’s remedy made from mint leaves and mandrake’s root. ‘Sounds great,’ said Katie, â€Å"Why don’ t witches cure everyone? ’

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Priyagold History Essay

After the research objectives have been specified (step 1) and the list of needed information has been prepared (step 2), the researcher should determine whether such information is already available, either in company records or in outside sources, certainly, the researcher should not collect data from the field until the appropriate secondary sources of information have been reviewed. If the needed information is not available from secondary sources, the researcher will have to collect data in the field, and so it will be necessary to design a data collection project. Researcher encounter many possible sources of error when designing a data collection project. Some of these include using a poor or inappropriate research design not using experimental designs where possible); using a large scale study instead of a small scale study, or vice versa; using poor experimental designs; and still others. To minimize the possible sources of error associated with designing a data collection project, the following five issues must be given attention first To a great extent, this issue is likely to be determining by the research objective and the situation leading to the request for research. Exploratory research is likely to be used when investigating a potential opportunity or problem and conclusive research is likely to be used when the research is likely to be used when the research findings are expected to result in specific decision being made or specific actions being taken.

Friday, September 13, 2019

China Social Relations and Public Life Under Mao Zedong and Deng Essay

China Social Relations and Public Life Under Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping - Essay Example Moreover, the strategy was to open China to the rest of the world through the adoption of various reconstruction policies. Moreover, Deng Xiaoping in the second half of 20th century put various policies that saw China become an economic hub and one of the main contributors in global economy. Consequently, China is now posing a great challenge to major economies of the world and the already existing superpowers. A China foreign relation has changed tremendously since 1949. This was to ensure the issue of national interest prevails and to safeguard its diplomacy status. Both Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping were part of these foreign changes and important symbols of Chinese history at this period. The history of republic of China can be divided into reign of Mao Zedong (1949-1976) and the reign of Deng Xiaoping (1978-1997) (Hephaestus Books 80-84). This paper seeks to compare and contrast China’s social relations and public life under Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping. Under the leadersh ip of Mao, China saw a change in foreign relations strategies. Mao foreign strategies were mostly to safeguard the security interest of the people republic of China. Moreover, Mao ensured that there was protection of China’s state sovereignty and its territory from countries surrounding it especially Japan. Mao foreign strategies can therefore, be summarized as a means of survival and security maintenance (Slavicek 28-35). However, in Deng Xiaoping’s era the strategies adopted by Mao changed significantly. In his reign, the priorities of foreign relations changed significantly. Consequently, Deng purpose was to ensure there was international sobriety so as modernization could be achieved in the republic of China. Moreover, Deng fought for the founding of the latest worldwide political and economic systems. Deng issues of modernization were aimed at overseeing China unification through the return of Taiwan, resistance of hegemonies and ensure sustenance of world peace. Furthermore, economic construction was the underlying factor of these set goals (Kau and Marsh 337-345). In addition, Mao foreign relations strategies were based on war and revolutions. In contrast, theme of peace and development strategies characterized Deng era. Mao was generally influenced by a protracted revolutionary war in establishing communism in China. Mao Zedong take on China was that it was a revolutionary country and therefore could support revolution in other parts of the world. Mao believed that world could only be shaped through revolution (Slavicek 56-60). However, there was a change in this policy during Deng’s era. Deng advocated for peace and had a notion that world war could be belated and avoided. Deng also believed that world status could only be achieved through peace and developments (Kau and Marsh 75). In addition, under the leadership of Mao, foreign relations were achieved through the perspective of an international united front. This was one of the three factors instituted under the communist revolution and regime of Mao Zedong. The unitary system was to ensure there was success in fighting a common enemy and therefore, involved forming allies with friendly nations (Slavicek 72). However, in the era of Deng Xiaoping, the issue of alliance was dropped from the policies and autonomy and non-alliance was part of this administration. Under Deng, China’s relation with two superpowers became minimal and fought to have an edge in the global arena. There was no formal recognition of any

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Summry Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Summry - Assignment Example The front view is shown as full section. This kind of section is advantageous when the object is symmetrical about a centre line. Here, full section view may not be necessary. In this case, a half sectional view is drawn as a front view which shows internal details of half the component. In cases where full information cannot be obtained if the section is taken along the centre line, offset section is used. To obtain full details the cutting plane is offset by 90 degrees to pass through all the holes and slots. The advantage of this section lies where there are elongated parts of the object are also present. This is used to show the transverse section of one part of object. The cutting plane is shown in section by cutting in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis. An adjacent view is obtained by rotating the cut section by 90 degrees. The Disadvantage of this kind of section is that when too many parts are present then using this section view may get complicated. In such cases, removed section proves to be advantageous as the section are shown removed from the front view located adjacently. This kind of sectional view has its own advantage as it does not use a cutting plane at all. Instead, the section view is shown with the front view and a jagged line is used to show the break. Hence, one may chose to break the object any way which helps showing the full internal details. The disadvantage of this view is that it may some how become difficult to decide how to introduce the break. In case, the object has elongated parts, the application of this section may become very

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

An Endangered species in the stomach Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

An Endangered species in the stomach - Assignment Example ments established that when the immune system was exposed to the bacterium, the antibodies in the serum were able to identify some of the organism’s proteins products. CagA protein was the first product that was recognized by the antibodies. Later research corroborated Dr. Barry J. Marshall’s findings that people who host the H. pylori strain carrying the CagA gene are more prone to peptic ulcers and stomach cancers. The article is silent about the prize that Barry J. Marshall won for establishing the link between the microbe and the stomach ulcer formation. In fact, he faced indifference and hostility when he proposed the linkage between the absence of H. pylori and increased incidence of GERD and esophageal cancers. Subsequent studies however did corroborate his findings which can be considered as an acknowledgment of his work. H. pylori is an ancient and genetically diverse organism. Its origin can be traced to the s1a variation of the vacA gene primarily found in northern Europe, s1b variation found in the Mediterranean area and the s1c variations predominant in East Asia. An anthropologist would be interested in knowing whether the strains circulating in different regions of the world bear any resemblance or are absolutely different from one another. This information can then be used by the anthropologist to trace human settlement and migration patterns. Helicobacter pylori can be referred to as a necessary evil for the human body as it has proved to be good and bad at the same time. The bacterium plays a pivotal role in controlling stomach acidity. Its presence thwarts the exposure of the lower esophagus to highly acidic stomach contents and thereby cuts the risk of inflammation in the esophagus. At the same time, the presence of Helicobacter pylori in the human body increases the risk of contracting peptic ulcers and stomach cancers. Such cancers occur due to the inflammation caused by the microbe in the stomach. In nutshell, the presence of