Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Religious Ceremonies In Theatre :: essays research papers fc
Theatre as a Religious Ceremony Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å"The drama in Greece was inextricably bound up with religious feeling and religious observance.Ã¢â¬ (Cheney 33) The citizens of the Greek states were the first European communities to raise dramatic performances to the level of an art. Furthermore, the Greek playwrights still exercise a potent creative force, and many modern dramatists find strong relationships between these legendary themes and modern conditions. The GreekÃ¢â¬â¢s religion is wholly responsible for the creation of all facets of early Greek theatre; whether it is the content of the plays, or the immense size of the theaters required to accommodate the attendance of the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s men. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Although much is speculated about the origins of early Greek theater, it may be stated that the Ã¢â¬Å"source of tragedy is to be found in choric dithyrambs sung in honor of the god DionysusÃ¢â¬ (Nicoll 9). The performance took place in an open-air theater. The word tragedy is derived from the term Ã¢â¬Å"tragediaÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"goat-songÃ¢â¬ , named for the goat skins the chorus wore in the performance. Originally these songs were improvised and rhapsodical as time passed by they were Ã¢â¬Å"poetized or rendered literaryÃ¢â¬ (Nicoll 9). The word Ã¢â¬Å"chorusÃ¢â¬ meant Ã¢â¬Å"dance or Ã¢â¬Å"dancing groundÃ¢â¬ , which was how dance evolved into the drama. Members of the chorus were characters in the play that commented on the action. They drew the audience into the play and reflected the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s reactions. The change from freelance song to theatre was obtained at the hands of a Greek named Thespis. He turned what was originally a song lea der, or priest, into an actor whose words were answered by a chanting chorus. Thespis also Ã¢â¬Å"changed the subject matter of theatre events, expanding them to deal not solely on stories of DionysusÃ¢â¬ (Nicoll 9). In the sixth century B.C., drama had been born in Greece and with the introduction of a second actor and later a third, this art form was ready to mature at the hands of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã These festivals grew in size and complexity, especially in Athens, where the largest of these festivals were held and only the premier playwrights released their plays. These prestigious and elaborate plays were performed at dramatic festivals. The two main festivals were the Feast of the Winepress in January and the City Dionysia at the end of March. The Proceeding began with the procession of choruses and actors of the three competing poets.