Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Social Norms vs. Nature Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Social Norms vs. Nature - Essay Example Their inner self connects and they find what they were looking for, in each other’s souls. Annie Proulx implies in Brokeback Mountain that when Jack and Ennis shy away from their natural urges they perish. Suppressing what is natural to them causes them pain and suffering that leads to the demise of their love, on the other hand, Anton Chekhov portrays how a man (Dmitri) pursues what is natural to him and embraces his natural urges with open arms, and in the end finds his true love. In the story The Lady with the Lapdog, Chekhov creates the setting for romantic spark between the two characters Dmitri and the lady. Dmitri’s romantic yearnings are simply unquenchable. He is bored with his wife and constantly seeks the love and affection of other women but never sticks with one. He constantly hunts down â€Å"fresh romance† as the old ones get on his nerves. This might sound unromantic but this is what Dmitri feels deep down inside. He doesn’t love his wife; to Dmitri she is too stiff and boring. This is the context as intelligent readers can guess that either Dmitri will start an affair with the lady, Anna, or at least the desire to have one will burn in his heart. The nature of Dmitri and the way he has transformed into a womanizer predicts that he will look for more chances of betraying his wife. Similarly, in the story Brokeback Mountain, the romance takes place between two men, Ennis Del Mar and Jack Twist, a homosexual romance which has absolutely no place in their society. It is obvious that what these two men feel, they will try to get it and in turn betray the social norms. That is how the setting of both these short stories builds a perfect setting for infidelity. However in The Lady with the Lapdog, the author plays with the pre-defined roles of characters, as when Dmitri and Anna hookup, they both fear the same thing, is the other person really interested or he is in it for the time being? This is the part where the readers predict that knowing Dmitri’s nature, he is in it for the game, he is bored as always and seeks new romance but as the story progresses things get more complicated than Dmitri’s simple urge to stay away from home and cheat on her wife, an aging seducer. In the book, The Lady with the Lapdog, the motivation for infidelity is not something that the society would look up to. Dmitri is on the verge of breaking up with his wife. He is simply frustrated by his wife’s cold nature and feels betrayed himself. He doesn’t consider it to be unjust to wander around and have flings with other women; he thinks he is taking revenge on his wife. Although there is not one motive for Dmitri’s disloyalty, however one factor that stands out is that Dmitri was not that much into his marriage from the beginning. He just stood in awe of her when they wedded but the wife’s imposing nature lingered on. She considered herself a â€Å"thinker† and used to call h er husband not by his real name but called him â€Å"Dimitri†. Dmitri probably felt emasculated by her actions, and that is why he preferred staying away from home. But the motive for infidelity in the Brokeback Mountain is in drastic contrast to Dmitri’s situation. Ennis and Jack are portrayed as characters struggling with their affectionate feeling toward each other but on the other hand, feeling afraid of being called homosexual.

Monday, October 28, 2019

Existentialism 7a.4 Themes Essay Example for Free

Existentialism 7a.4 Themes Essay After reading this unit you will be able to : Understand the concept of existentialism. Explain features of existentialism. Identify the exponents of existentialism their views. Deliberate on some themes in existentialism. Describe the educational philosophy of existentialism. 7A. 1INTRODUCTION Existentialism is a way of philosophizing that may lead those who adopt it to a different conviction about the world and man’s life in it. Existentialism is mainly a European philosophy that originated before the turn of the twentieth century, but became popular after World War II (1939 – 45). The seeds of existentialism may be traced back to an earlier period of the history of philosophy. During the 18th century reason and nature were given more importance, objectivity was very much emphasized, leading to industrial and technological developments and science was given utmost importance. From the scientific viewpoint, man was also regarded as an object. Man became a slave to machines in developing industrial society. Against this situation existentialism emerged as a protest against the society and asserted the supremacy of individuality of man. The existentialist philosophy is not a creation of any single philosopher. The existentialist writings scattered in the works of many philosophers, the important ones of which are : Friedrich Nietzsche, Soren Kierkegaard, Gabriel Marcel, Martin Heidegger, Jean Paul Sartre, Karl Jaspers, Abbagnamo, Bardyaev and Albert Camus etc. In American education, such people as Maxine Greene, George Kneeler, and Van Cleve Morris, are well-known existentialists who stress individualism and personal self-fulfillment. 7A. 2FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH 1. Existence precedes Essence: This philosophy begins from man, but from man as existent (CURRENT, Present, existing) rather than man as a thinking subject, having a definite nature or essence. A man first exists, encounters himself, and defines himself afterwards. Existence comes before man is set with value or essence. It is because to begin with man is nothing, has no essence, he will be what he makes of himself. Man defines himself in his own subjectivity (Bias, Partiality), and wanders (Walks) between choice, freedom, and existential angst (Sorrow, Trouble). Existentialism often is associated with anxiety, dread, awareness of death, and freedom. 2. Importance of Subjectivity: The Danish philosopher S Kierkegaard has said that truth is subjective (Personal, Individual), truth is subjectivity: objectivity and abstraction (Concept, generalization, idea) are hallucinations. (Vision). Existentialism is the philosophy of subject rather than of the object. Each individual by probing into the depths of one’s subjectivity can discover the truth of one’s being and discover his authentic role in life. This is a creative process which gives rise to fresh insights. 3. Man’s Freedom: The basic feature of human person is his freedom – unfettered and unrestrained. Society and social institutions are for the sake of man and not vice versa, as believed by idealists and others. There is no â€Å"general will† to which the â€Å"individual will† is subject. 4. Criticism of Idealism : Existentialism has emerged and developed as a reaction against idealism. Existentialist philosophers are highly critical of idealism and conceptualism. They criticize idealist’s contention about universal element and man’s good being subject to general good. They regard the search for essence a mistaken pursuit and according to them it is not the essence but existence which is real. 5. Criticism of Naturalism : The existentialist philosophers are also critical of the philosophy of Naturalism. According to naturalists, life is subject to physico – bio – chemical laws, which in turn, are subject to the universal law of causation. Human acts are mechanical as the actions of an animal. This, however, is anathema to the existentialists and they stoutly defend the freedom of man. As a matter of fact, man is so free, according to J.P. Sartre, that he is fearful of his freedom. 6. Criticism of Scientific Culture : With tremendous progress in science and technology, rapid industrialization and urbanization have taken place. This has given rise to crowded towns in which individual is lost. Everything is done or happens on a large – scale and all personal values, individual likes and dislikes are altogether lost sight of. Today, it is not the individual who chooses his end; rather all decisions are made by computer or statistical laws and data. Thus, science has made the value of man negligible. This is why the existentialists are opposed to scientific philosophy and culture. 7. Attention on Human Weakness and Security : In this scientific life of today, the individual is leading a life of tension, worries, frustrations, fear and sense of guilt. His individuality is getting continually blundered, therefore for security of individuality the individual should be given an environment free of worries, anxieties and tension. Thus, existentialism is a philosophical movement that is generally considered a study that pursues meaning in existence and seeks value for the existing individual. It, unlike other fields of philosophy, does not treat the individual as a concept, and values individual subjectivity over objectivity. As a result, questions regarding the meaning of life and subjective experience are seen as being of paramount importance, above all other scientific and philosophical pursuits. Check your progress – 1 : 1. What is meant by existentialism? 2. What were the consequences of industrial developments? 3. Bring out existentialist’s criticism against idealism and naturalism. 4. Discuss importance of subjectivity and human freedom in terms of existentialism. 5. Existence precedes essence. Do you agree? Justify your answer. 7A. 3CHIEF EXPONENTS OF EXISTENTIALISM Soren Kierkegaard (1813 – 1855) is regarded as the father of modern existentialism and is the first European Philosopher who bears the existentialist label. In his view, subjectivity and intensity should be priced as the criteria of truth and genuineness. We touch reality in intense moments of existence especially moments of painful decision. These moments are characterized by deep anxiety, and life is known in such moments and cannot be reduced to just system of ideas. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844 – 1900) is regarded as a key figure in the rise of existentialism. According to him Christianity is to be overcome by putting in its place the doctrine of Superman, that is, man surpassing himself. Martin Heidegger (1889 – 1976) in his book Being and Time, gave a very impressive analysis of human existence, the prominence of the important themes of existentialism like care, anxiety, guilt and above all death is brought out here. Jean – Paul Sarte stressed that man’s existence precedes his essence. â€Å"Man is nothing else but what he purposes, he exists only in so far as he realizes himself, he is therefore nothing else but the sum of his actions, nothing else but what his life is. † 7A. 4SOME RECURRING THEMES IN EXISTENTIALISM : Themes such as freedom, decision, and responsibility are prominent in all existentialist philosophers. These matters constitute the core of personal being. It is the exercise of freedom and the ability to shape the future that distinguishes man from all other beings that we know on earth. It is through free and responsible decisions that man becomes authentically himself. Another group of recurring existentialist themes includes such topics as finitude, guilt, alienation, despair, moods, changing feelings, emotional life of man and death. Discussions of these have not been prominent in traditional philosophy, yet they are discussed at length in existentialism. For the existentialist man is never just part of the cosmos but always stands to it in a relationship of tension with possibilities for tragic conflict. Check your progress – 2 : 1. Name some of the existentialists. 2. Bring out the views of Sartre and Nietzsche. 3. Which are the most frequently repeated themes in existentialism. 4. Write 10 sentences about the philosophy of existentialism in your words. 7A. 5EDUCATIIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF EXISTENTIALISM : The object of education is to give man the unity of truth†¦ In the field of education the contribution of existentialism is as follows : The aim of Education : Existentialists believe that the most important kind of knowledge is about the human condition and the choices that each person has to make, and that education is a process of developing consciousness about the freedom to choose and the meaning of responsibility for one’s choices. Hence, the notion of group norms, authority, and established order – social, political, philosophical, religious, and so on – are rejected. The existentialists recognize few standards, customs to traditions, or eternal truths; in this respect, existentialism is at odds with the ideas of idealism and realism. Total Development : The existentialists have aimed at total development of personality through education. Education should aim at the whole man. It should aim at character formation and self – realization. In the existentialist classroom, subject matter takes second place to helping the students understand and appreciate themselves as unique individuals who accept complete responsibility for their thoughts, feelings, and actions. Since feeling is not divorced from reason in decision making, the existentialist demands the education of the whole person, not just the mind. Subjective Knowledge : The present age of science has made too much of objective knowledge, so much so, that the term has come to mean unreal, non-sense, ignorant and irrelevant. The existentialists rightly, point out that subjective knowledge is even more important than objective knowledge. They rightly hold that truth is subjectivity. It is a human value and values are not facts. Reduction of values to facts has led to widespread loss of faith in values. Therefore, along with the teaching of science and mathematics, the humanities, art, literature should be also be given suitable place in curriculum at every stage of education. Most of the ills of the modern man are due to over – objective attitude. This requires a subjectivist correction in the light of existentialist ideas. Importance of Environment : The present industrial, economic, political and social environment is valueless. Therefore, it helps confusion and corruption, tensions and conflicts. The existentialists seek to provide an environment proper to self – development and self – consciousness. This environment in the school requires contribution from humanities, arts and literature. These will help in the development of individuality in the educand so that he may cease to become a cog in the social wheel. Rather he should develop to a self – conscious and sensitive individual. Child – Centred Education : Existentialist education is child – centred. It gives full freedom to the child. The teacher should help the child to know himself and recognize his being. Freedom is required for natural development. Education should convert imperfection into perfection. Education should be according to the individual’s needs and abilities of the child. The relation of the child to himself should be strengthened by education. Curriculum : Existentialists prefer to free learners to choose what to study and also determine what is true and by what criteria to determine these truths. The curriculum would avoid systematic knowledge or structured disciplines, and the students would be free to select from many available learning situations. The learners would choose the knowledge they wish to possess. The humanities are commonly given tremendous emphasis. They are explored as a means of providing students with vicarious experiences that will help unleash their own creativity and self – expression. For example, rather than emphasizing historical events, existentialists focus upon the actions of historical individuals, each of whom provides possible models for the students’ own behaviour. Existentialist’s approach to education is almost an inversion of the realist approach. In the field of curriculum while the realists exclusively emphasize science, the existentialists find out that science and objective education severs our relation with ourselves. Science cannot help in inner realization and achievement of peace. This, however, does not mean that science education should be ignored. It only means besides science the curriculum must include humanities, ethics and religion. In keeping with this viewpoint contemporary engineering colleges have included some philosophy, ethics and social studies, in their curriculum. Without this synthetic approach to curriculum the aim of character formation and personality development will be defeated. Learning Experiences : An existentialist curriculum would consist of experiences and subjects that lend themselves to philosophical dialogue and acts of choice making. Because the choice is personal and subjective, subjects that are emotional, aesthetic and philosophical are appropriate. Literature, drama, film – making, art, and so on, are important, because, they portray the human condition and choice – making conditions. The curriculum would stress self – expressive activities, experimentation, and media that illustrate emotions, feelings and insights. The classroom would be rich in materials that lend themselves to self – expression, and the school would be a place in which the teacher and students could pursue dialogue and discussion about their lives and choices. The Teacher : According to the existentialists the teacher creates an educational situation in which the student may establish contact with himself, become conscious of it and achieve self – realization. This requires existential approach in the teacher himself. He should also have an experience of self – realization so that he may be capable of guiding the students in this process. The teacher’s role is to help students define their own essence by exposing them to various paths they may take in life and creating an environment in which they may freely choose their own preferred way. Existentialist methods focus on the individual. Learning is self-paced, self directed, and includes a great deal of individual contact with the teacher, who relates to each student openly and honestly. The student : The student should feel completely free for realizing his ‘self’. Under the guidance of the teacher, the student should try to realize his ‘self’ through introversion. The student accepts the discipline prescribed by the teacher and does not become irresponsible. The purpose of freedom given to him should be to enable him to effect the full development of his individuality. Religious and Moral Education : The existentialists particularly lay emphasis upon religion and moral education. Religion allows a person to develop himself. Religious education gives him an understanding of his existence in the cosmos. It shows the religious path of self – realization. It also makes him capable of utilizing faith in self – development. Moral education is closely related to religious education. Both develop the inner self and help in the realization of the infinite within the finite. 7A. 6CRITICAL EVLAUATION Some critics (mainly traditionalists or Conservatives) claim that existentialism as philosophy for the schools has limited application because education in our society, and in most other modern societies, involves institutionalized learning and socialization, which require group instruction, restriction on individual behaviour and bureaucratic organization. Schooling is a process that limits students’ freedom and that is based on adult authority and on the norms and beliefs of the mass or common culture. The individual existentialist, exerting his or her will and choice will encounter difficulty in school – and in other large, formal organizations. Check your progress – 3 : 1. What is the role of teacher and the student according to the existentialist? 2. Bring out the importance of learning experiences in teaching – learning process. 3. What is the aim of education according to the existentialist? 4. What kind of curriculum do the existentialist recommend? 5. Bring out the importance of existentialism in today’s education system. Illustrate your answer. 6. Critically evaluate existentialist general and educational philosophy. 7A. 7SUMMARY : Philosophy and education are two sides of the same coin, and thus different philosophies bring out a different facet of education and as education can change the philosophy of man and his life. Existentialism as a philosophical idea was revolutionary, dynamic and passionate, it changed the way of thinking and brought to forefront the cause of individualism. Moreover its views on education may seem dramatic but taken in right sense and moderation is necessary in today’s materialistic society. In this unit, we have seen the philosophy of existentialism, the criticism of them prevailing traditional rigid systems. The philosophy of existentialism brought man, his existence, his emotions and his subjectivity into forefront, they were forerunners of individualism and uniqueness of each man. The views of various exponents of existentialism and the themes they brought out makes their philosophy better understood. The philosophy of education of existentialism speaks about aims, curriculum, the role of teacher, method of teaching, learning experiences and religious and moral education. References : Macquarrie, J. (1968) : Existenatialism, Pelican Book. Chaube S. P. Chaube A. (1996) : Foundations of Education, Publishing House, New Delhi. Chandra S. S. Sharma R. K. (2004) : Philosophy of Education, Atlantic Publishers.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Hybrid Cars :: Gasoline Electric Hybrid Automobiles

Hybrid cars: Abstract: A hybrid car, also known as an HEV or hybrid electric vehicle, is an automobile that is powered by two sources; an internal combustion engine, and an electric motor. HEV’s need plugs, as they are amply charged by the movement of the wheels and storing the kinetic energy that is generated through a process called regenerative braking. Cars have been accepted as a solution to the current pollution problems that we face, as they offer lower emissions than gasoline automobiles. Some hybrid cars produces around 90% less pollutants than regular cars. With cars with this system, a hybrid car can cross longer distances than normal ones with less use of gasoline. They can get up to 55-60 mpg in city driving, while a typical SUV might travel just 15-20 mpg. Also there are 2 types of cars: the first type is the series, and the second type is called the parallels Hybrid electric vehicle A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a vehicle which combines a conventional propulsion system with an on-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) to achieve better fuel economy than a conventional vehicle without being hampered by range from a charging unit like a battery electric vehicle (BEV), which uses batteries charged by an external source.)The different propulsion power systems may have common subsystems or components. Regular HEVs most commonly use an internal combustion engine (ICE) in tandem with electric motors to power their propulsion system. Modern mass-produced HEVs prolong the charge on their batteries by capturing kinetic energy via regenerative braking, and some HEVs can use the combustion engine to generate electricity by spinning an electrical generator to either recharge the battery or directly feed power to an electric motor that drives the vehicle. Many HEVs reduce idle emissions by shutting down the ICE at idle and restarting it when needed. An HEV's engine is smaller and may be run at various speeds, providing more efficiency. HEVs became widely available to the public in the late 1990s. HEVs are viewed by some automakers as a core segment of the future automotive market. Technology The varieties of hybrid electric designs can be differentiated by the structure of the hybrid vehicle drivetrain, the fuel type, and the mode of operation. In 2007, several automobile manufacturers announced that future vehicles will use aspects of hybrid electric technology to reduce fuel consumption without the use of the hybrid drivetrain. Regenerative braking can be used to recapture energy and stored to power electrical accessories, such as air conditioning.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Internet: The Good, The Bad and The Ugly Essay

What exactly is the â€Å"Internet†? Imagine millions of computers all around the world linked together and exchanging information. The Internet is a global network made up of thousands of smaller networks. The Internet is like a huge town. If you wanted to send or receive mail you have an electronic post office. There are also libraries you can use any time you want, with millions of books and magazines and newspapers. Chat rooms are like the schoolyard or lunchroom except you can talk to people anytime you want. And on the World Wide Web, you can play games and listen to music (What is the Internet?). There are lots of good reasons to use the Internet. You can explore ways to learn and have fun. You can play games with other people anywhere in the world and find out interesting things you never knew before. The Internet allows you to access information anytime, anywhere. You can help plan your family vacation, do research for school projects, and read about your favorite movie star. You can exchange documents, pictures, music, video clips, and even software. You can listen to radio stations from around the world and send family photos. With the Internet you have instant communication with people all over the world. You can keep in touch with your friends and meet new ones, and get experts to answer your questions. But of course the Internet isn’t perfect. It sounds like a dream come true but there are many drawbacks in Internet use. Esther Dyson explains, â€Å"At it’s worse the Internet is like a repository of the most inaccurate, banal and slanderous cocktail-party conversation† (352). Basically anyone can make a website and post something on the Internet. There are no rules or laws about the credibility of the information online. Other problems the Internet has created are fraud and invasion of privacy. A recent survey reported that 143 million Americans are connected to the Internet. That means about 54 percent of the American population have Internet access (Examine Benefits and Drawbacks of Internet Use). The Internet has become one of the most useful and helpful tools available to people today. However, the Internet has pros and cons just like any other type of communication tool. The Internet was initially intended to be used as a network to connect different colleges, universities, government agencies and research centers. The main driving force behind the Internet is information. Someone, somewhere has some information they want to be read, and that there is someone else interested in reading it. And because of the technology behind the Internet and the World Wide Web all this wealth of information from around the globe and is within the reach of many people (Serano). The main benefit we gain from the Internet is information. The Internet is full of information and the fact that the information is available at the touch of a button makes getting information very convenient and easy to use. The Internet is always â€Å"open†. You can look something up at any time of the day. In addition, with Internet service available from home or work, looking for information doesn’t mean you have to drop what you’re doing and you don’t have to leave your office or your house. Also, nowadays there are â€Å"online courses†. Students can now get credit for a course without even leaving their bedrooms! Dyson clarifies that computers and the Internet are very useful but they will never be capable of replacing teachers. Teachers are role models, mentors and motivators to the students and a computer will never have the effect the teacher or the environment of a classroom has on the student (352-53). Currently, there is so much information on the Internet and looking for something can become tiring. People spend hours looking through different web sites before finding exactly what they’re looking for. Misleading information is serious and can lead to fraud. Fraud has turned into one of the most common Internet crimes (Serano). Many people are going to believe what they see or hear and will become the victims of these crimes. I think the consumer’s lack of caution is to blame. â€Å"People not properly prepared for this kind of world will become an increasing problem for themselves and for the rest of society† (Dyson 353). Another new type of crime is hacking. Hacking is illegal and it involves entry into other computers system. This type of crime has also become very  common and could result in great problems worldwide. Once someone has hacked into your computer everything on your computer is at risk. The hackers can snoop through all your information. Laws are in effect to protect against crimes like this, but the knowledge of the hackers grows as fast as the technology, making enforcement very difficult. Even with all of these dangers, there is still one more issue; the most important issue. Whether we like it or not, every move we make while on the Internet is tracked. Even the web sites we visit are followed. The information people get from following Internet users are very useful to companies. They can get your name and address and send you information about their company. Getting your information can really boost a company’s profit. There is no law that prevents the monitoring of Internet usage, so there really isn’t anything anyone can do about it. The Internet was originally created by the CIA in the 1960s and now 4 decades later, almost every household in the world uses it. The Internet was created to link information and to send messages within branches of government, now it’s considered a major mass medium. The Internet has many advantages as well as disadvantages for all its users. The Internet keeps thousands of people communicated and businesses linked together. Also the Internet has united two mass mediums. One example of this convergence is newspapers. The Internet has the advantage that it unites people from all over the world. More and more people each day own a computer and are linked to the World Wide Web. Communication has never been easier with sources like voice chat and instant messaging. Dyson,Esther. â€Å"A Map of the Network Society.† The New World Reader. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005. (350-356). Examine Benefits and Drawbacks of Internet Use. 6 Feb. 2002. 2 Nov. 2004 . Serrano, Justin. INTERNET: THE GOOD, THE BAD AND THE UGLY. 2 Nov. 2004 . â€Å"What is the Internet?† LEARN THE NET: FAQs for Kids. 2 Nov. 2004 .

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Financial Policy Definition

Amartuul Turbat Professor Fillenwarth Financial Policy 11 March 2011 The Definitions Question 1-2; (1-1. a. b. ) Proprietorship: is the entity owned by an individual who is only founder and manager of the company. Even though it does not pay tax for located states, proprietorship’s profits or loses reports on its owners’ annual tax reports. Despite the fact that proprietorship is easy to form and has seldom government regulations, its term of operation is directly depending on its founder life time (Ehrhardt and Brigham 5). In addition on proprietorship, a partnership is more flexible type which is a business relationship between several individuals who are similar desires to obtain the profits from the partnership’s operation. Typically, partnership classified general and limited based on its contract regulation. Despite the fact that in general partnership-general members responsible to pay company’s loss by their own assets, in limited partnership members-limited members can lose the amount of money which they invested in the partnership. Furthermore, likewise limited members responsible for limited part of the partnership, they have limited right to participate or control the company’s management. Even though at least one person should be a general member of the partnership, all members can be partner whose potential losses are limited by their amount of investment. This type of company is called Limited Liability Company (Ehrhardt and Brigham 6). Finally, company organized as a corporation when business enlarged and it is difficult to manage it by structure of partnership or proprietorship. Corporation works under the located state law and operates independently from managers. Due to this separation, corporation has â€Å"unlimited life of existence, easy transferability of ownership interest, and limited liability losses† (Ehrhardt and Brigham 24). Question 1-1 (C) Stock holder Wealth Maximization: is the main goal of the corporation since it is the best way of successful operation in long-term business. Derivatives: is the special type of securities because its value and right are depending on prices of another assets or operation. D; E) – Corporations can sell its stock in the private markets or the public markets. Unlike the private market in which trade is made in between two sides, in the public market, numerous people participate in the trades. In order to be an owner of the corporations, investors can buy the company’s stock from the â€Å"primary markets† in which companies sell their IPO (Initial Public offering) or from the â€Å" secondary market† in which IPO owners sell their stocks for other investors. Also, there are some other financial markets exist such as money markets and capital markets. Main difference between those two markets is â€Å"liquidation† of the securities (Ehrhardt and Brigham 23). For example, in spite the fact that short-term highly liquid debts trade in the money market and long-term stocks and debt maturing trade in the capital markets. (F) Investment Bank: is a financial institution which encourages the company to create stocks into the markets, and it is the assistant of the companies when they merging with each other (Ehrhardt and Brigham 23). Financial Service Corporations: are the organizations which involved with money management such as banks, credit card companies, and insurance companies (Ehrhardt and Brigham 24). Financial Intermediaries: are the unions which involved finding the surplus money from one side and then allocating it to deficit sides (Ehrhardt and Brigham 30). (G) Mutual Funds: are the organizations that collect money from numerous investors and then put it to buy financial instruments such as stocks, bonds, short and long-term money instruments. Money Market Fund: is the one type of mutual fund which invests in securities with short-term, low risk, and more safety conditions (Ehrhardt and Brigham 29). (H) Physical Location exchanges: is a physical financial market in which brokers and dealer participate in trade of stock, bonds, notes and mortgages. Computer/ Telephone Network: Invertors can participate in trades by computer/ telephone network without requiring members to be in the same building. (I) Open Outcry Auction: is a trading process of selling and buying stocks by offering bids and then sell it higher prices. In other words it is the mechanism of the trades. Dealer markets: is different from the auction since in which brokers acting a main role of the trading process, and they ask and quote the prices in order to match the seller or buyer with their prices (Ehrhardt and Brigham 30). Electronic communication network: is the automatic system which helps for members to match their bid to another buyer or seller. It provides people in any every counties opportunity to participate in trading by using internet (Ehrhardt and Brigham 30). J) Production opportunities: is the possibility to convert a capital into profits. Because production opportunities affect the returned earnings of the investment, financiers consider it when they determining the cost of money (Ehrhardt and Brigham 21). Time references for consumption: is the tendency of the use of money in present and future. In spite the fact that in China people tend to save their money for future, Mongolian people prefer to use their money p resents (Ehrhardt and Brigham 20). (K) Foreign trade deficit: is the one of the economic condition which affects the cost of money. For example, if American foreign trade getting slows, its reserve of the money become decreasing, so it can be influence cost of the investment. It means American buy more than they sell (Ehrhardt and Brigham 19). Question 1-3 Intrinsic value is the true value of the organizations which based on real position of market share, company’s assets, and perception of the future. This value can be same as market value if factors are same in the estimation process. On the other hand, intrinsic value may be different from market value depending on information used in evaluation. For example, if management hides negative information, market value might be higher than intrinsic values (Ehrhardt and Brigham 9). Question 1-4 Edmund Enterprises recently made a large investment to upgrade its technology. Even though this investment cannot improve the income in short-term, it can reduce the production cost. Therefore, in short-term investment cost will increase in the â€Å"Income Statement† because of the new investment; as a result profits will decrease and company’s earnings per share will decrease. However, in the financial markets, this news affects positively on stock’s market price. Also, this investment can raise the company’s intrinsic value since it can reduce the production costs (Ehrhardt and Brigham 30). Question 1-5 Capital can be transferred by the direct and indirect ways. In direct ways only two sides participate. Savers can make investment direct into business, and business sells their securities to savers without other parties. On the other hand, investment bank or financial intermediaries can participate effectively in transfers of capital. For example, person who has surplus money invest in business by using investment bank or financial intermediaries, and companies can get investment by collaborating with those third parties (Ehrhardt and Brigham 14). Question 1-6 Financial intermediaries such as commercial banks, financial service companies play a crucial role of the economic system. Banks allocate efficiently financial fund, and they offer financial services that can make easy to obtaining information for both savers and borrowers (Levine 690). Question 1-7 An initial public offering (IPO) is a  primary market transaction. Typically, the company sells the IPO to other  institutional investors, so the general public has no access to the IPO initially. After certain institutions get the stocks, they may sell them into the secondary market where all investors can buy them (Ehrhardt and Brigham 28). Question 1-8 Stock market is a securities market where bond, stock and other securities trading in guided by the professional stockbrokers. On the other hand, in dealer markets, transactions makes based on person who acting as dealers for his own accounts rather than brokers acting as dealer for his buying and selling processes (Buiter). Question 1-9 Two leading stock markets are â€Å"New York Stock Exchange† (NYSE) and â€Å"Nasdaq Stock Exchange† (NASDAQ). NYSE is considered largest stock market in the world and companies’ market capitalization which are listed at NYSE are US$13. 39 trillion in end of 2010. Also, NASDAQ is the largest electronic screen trading in the United States, and second largest stock market by market capitalization of listed companies (Buiter para. ). Works Cited Brigham, Eugene F. , and Michael C. Ehrhardt. Financial Management Theory and Practice. Mason, Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2010. Print. Buiter, Willem H. â€Å"Time Preference and International Lending and Borrowing in an Overlapping-Generations Model. †Ã‚  The Journal of Political Economy  89. 4 (1989): 769+. Google Scholars. Web. 2 Mar. 2011. Levine, Ross. â€Å"Financial Development and Economic Growth. †Ã‚  Journal of Economic Literature(1999): 688-729. Web. 02 Mar. 2011.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

buy custom As Managing Small Business essay

buy custom As Managing Small Business essay Introduction Contrary to assumptions made by many, running a business is not an easy task and it in deed requires knowledge and skills which are applied into it. Following this notion, it is of great importance for anyone who aspires to be a successful entrepreneur to tirelessly search for knowledge that will enable him or her plan, establish and run his or her business effectively. This follows the notion that businesses have numerous functional systems some of which include inventory systems, sales systems, financial control, communication among workers and logistics systems if only to mention a few. An understanding manager is required to supervise the business and ensure that everything is in its set position and that all the systems are operational. Since the decisions of a manager have a great impact on the business, it is recommended that before people embark on managing their business, they should have the necessary skills to enable them make upright and sound decisions concerning their businesses. Though it might sound easier when mentioned but acquisition of these skills is quite a nagging task that demands ones time, energy and resources. This document gives an in-depth overview on how one can run business and ensure that it flourishes thus outshining all its competitors. It makes a closer observation of the skills that a manager ought to have in order to manage his or her business appropriately and consequently run it properly. To facilitate proper research, the document is divided into various sections all of which reinforce to the main aim of the research: skills necessary for the management of business which can also be referred as strategic management skills. Purpose Like earlier mentioned in the previous section, the chief purpose of this research is to establish the skills that are necessary for creating, operating and managing a small business. The research is directed towards creating a clear understanding why it is necessary to acquire management skills and at the same time apply them in a business. At this particular level, it is of paramount importance to understand that strategic management involves the continuous process of coming up with strategies that make the enterprise profitable and at the same time brings and maintains harmony between the business and its surroundings (Mia, Sands, Iselin, 2011). This is achieved by taking into account all the strengths that business already has and using them to achieve the objectives set for the business. Weaknesses that are likely to hurt the business are on the other hand exploited in the favor of the business. In simpler terms, carrying out the SWOT analysis raises the business on higher grou nds and makes it flourish. Excellent strategies will undoubtedly be associated with various benefits some of which are mentioned below. To start with, strategic management takes into consideration what lies ahead and anticipates for it. This way, strategies are made both logically and rationally which ensures success of the business (Mia, Sands, Iselin, 2011). Another benefit is that management reduces confusion as processes to be followed are designed in such a way that they follow a procedure. Due to its renowned culture of seeking opportunities, proper management is associated with growth. This success consequently adds into the businesses reputation, something that lures more customers into the business, catches and sustains their loyalty. Scope This research will follow a certain trend from its initial stages up to the final mature stage. Collecting of data will be at the very beginning of the survey from various sources some of which are primary and others are secondary. Later on, the collected data will be analyzed and presented in a way that will make it beneficial to other people. Collection of data will involve face-to-face interview and another interview via email. Methodology This research was mainly aimed at gathering qualitative data on the various ways used in establishing and directing strategies and decision making in all activities that relate to creating, operating, and managing the small business (Horrocks King, 2009). All these characteristics have to be studied in relation with aims of the study. As such, the study has to be exploratory with its chief objective being provision of an in-depth explanation on the various methods and steps that ought to be embraced to ensure that a small business maneuver, stabilize, and increase its market share in spite of the innumerable challenges. To guarantee that the research produces practicable results, a questionnaire to be filled by some successful entrepreneurs is vital to get their views and opinions which will act as feedback on what one is expected to do if he or she aspires to succeed in business. The duly completed questionnaires will be used to provide info on the trends that should to be followed in planning for achievement. In addition, they are expected to answer the question of how appropriately the marketing mix can be embrace in order to maximize profits and minimize production cost concurrently. To overcome challenges associated with this research method, precautions are to be seriously taken into consideration in order to improve reliability of the research (Mary, 2010). Some of the problems associated with qualitative research like data load as a result of using open-ended questions will be overcome by ascertaining that the asked questions are clear, correct, accurate and precise thus direct unto the point. In efforts to reduce cost and misuse of time, the budget is to include the essential equipments and leave out the rest that are not so important. Presenting the results in a clear logical language that can be understood by the other people is a special way to eliminate complexity and make the research beneficial not only to the researcher but also to the others (Horrocks King, 2009). Sampling The respondents were sampled focusing on success in their businesses and their willingness to give information honestly. Consideration of their activeness, innovation, industriousness and commitment in business was yet another significant factor that has to be put into account. This follows the notion that different people have varied levels of generosity and some might not be willing to participate in the survey. In the research, a sample frame of active and successful business people was targeted from different walks of life. From this frame, a sample of three individuals was selected for the research depending on their industriousness and the level of intelligence. The sampling was targeting the most competent group of people in order to save time and acquire both high quality and quantity information relevant to the research while filling the questionnaires. Random sampling was used to avoid any bias and ensure that the respondents were balanced in terms of gender. Collecting information from both men and women was chief because it would provide abundant information on the different kinds of impressions that people have concerning running of a business. The major reason for using flourishing business people is because they are more conversant with the various techniques that can be used in entrepreneurship. They were therefore likely to provide information on the various management strategies that can be embraced to succeed. The use of three people was important in the sense that it would make comparison of information from different respondents possible thus increasing the trustworthiness of the results (Seidman, 2006). Instrumentation This research was exclusively reliant on two major instruments for data collection: interview questions and questionnaires which are to be filled during and after the interview. The structured interview type was preferred to the other types due to its evident standardization quality. The method was more fixed than the others having a special guide of questions to follow when conducting the interview (Kajornboon, 2005). The interview was conducted differently with the interviewees being encouraged to talk frankly, openly and provide as much information as possible. This method enabled the respondents to express their opinions and share their knowledge and experiences thus providing answers to the aims of the research. However, caution was taken to ensure that the preset questions are adhered to preventing the respondents from wandering off the main topic. All respondents will be expected to provide answers to smilar questions. Data collection The methods of data collection are mainly attempts to provide answers to some elementary questions on how to properly plan, manage and acquire profits from a personal business (Mary, 2010). Additionally, info as to why the most appropriate management strategies should be embraced would be another major concern while designing the best method of data collection. Questions are bound to follow a certain order from the simplest level to stimulate thinking to the highest level which forms the climax of the interview. Questionnaires had to be sensitively effective in order to increase the feasibility of the research and at the same time consider the privacy of the respondents. As such, there were some things that had to be taken into account while structuring questions. To start with, personal and offensive questions had to be avoided. This is the case because some respondents fidget when such queries are posed to them. The respondent should not also be expected to answer lengthy questions as such questions make irrelevant demands on time, efforts and expense. Questionnaires had also to be designed to collect the aspired information and none other no matter how interesting other stories might seem. This has the implication that questions were not to be confusing-they had to be straight unto the point. It was also wise to choose respondents who have the required knowledge and skills necessary for filling the questionnaires. To encourage respondents to answer all the questions, questions that are of interest to them had to be formulated. This means that questions were to be formulated in align with the prickliest issues relating to running of the business. This convinces the respondents that in deed the research will play a part in solving a particular problem. As such, they are likely to answer the questions both precisely and honestly (Kajornboon, 2005). It was finally important to establish whether using interview and questionnaire methods were really the best channels for data collection. It was an obligation to also view other methods of data collection like observation, and survey and decide which among them would work best before concluding coming to a conclusion. In addition to the above mentioned precautions, the respondents had to be enlightened on the importance of filling the questionnaires honestly. Listening to the views of some people concerning the questionnaire was also relevant before distributing it to the respondents. Some details such as language complication, consistence and credibility of the questions as well as realism of the multiple choices provided in the questionnaires ought to be considered too. Sources As earlier mentioned, all the information provided in this document was gathered through the interview method. These are renowned business people who have been successful in running their businesses as sole proprietors. The chief reason for using this method is to ascertain that info is collected from individuals with first-hand information (Kajornboon, 2005). There were three main people interviewed for this report and all the information was entirely collected from them. The questions that were posed to them have been provided in the appendix at the tail end of this report. Plan of Presentation For the purpose of heightening consistency, this report is represented with all the information in the following format: introduction giving an overview of what the document is all about, purpose, scope, methodology explaining the methods that have been used in gathering info, sources of all the information given analyzed, plan of presentation which is this section itself, discussion of the results of the interviews, nature of work, education requirements to set up the business, likes and dislikes of primary sources, how the small business began their businesses, use of written and oral communications, use of technology and finally the career outlook. Discussion Nature of the work The work demands one to start it both energetically and passionately. Every days work should start by defining all the problems that need to be addressed and then the solutions can be pursued later during the day. This means that every morning, one should have a vivid picture of all that is expected of him or her all through the day. This makes one plan effectively and come up with strategies to achieve of the earlier set objectives of the day (Matt Kuke et al. 2001). Financial obligations of the business for each day should be considered to facilitate proper budgeting. This prevents squandering of resources and at the same time aids in keeping of proper financial records. It is also of great importance to keep listening to the comments, views and opinions of the customers as they are a good source of reliable information which can be used to improve the business (Sandino Merchant, 2009). It is the managers responsibility to take note of all the comments, complaints and opinions by the customers as they are always feedbacks about goods and services offered by the company. Anything from a client should not be ignored; rather, it should be assessed to determine whether there is any relevant area that needs some improvement. This follows the perception humans are normally blind to their own flaws and unless those flaws are spotted by other people, owners can rarely realize them. This is where the customers come in handy: spotting and reporting flaws in a business (Favaro, 2003). Running a caf highly depends on the customers and the community actually plays the greatest role in determining the success of the business. The customers keep requesting for more and more foods, something that obliges the entrepreneur to work hard and exceed their expectations (Favaro, 2003). Since this is not an easy task, he or she must be ready to learn from them. Despite this fact, it is sometimes so unfortunate that one cannot satisfy the wants of all people. This hence fails to quench ones thirst if he or she loves something, say for example serving all people to satisfaction, passionately. Education Requirements Although it is believed that anyone can be a manager, it has been confirmed that it is very hard for one to become a leader. This follows the notion that for one to become a leader, he or she must be perfect in time management and have the respect of all the other people. This refers to all the individuals that have any kind of connection with the business including the suppliers and consumers (Invester Pinch Clinic 2012). In addition, leaders should have the capacity to listen and reciprocate respect to their employees as they form the backbone of company and are the main contributors towards the businesss success (Bradford, 2012). It would thus seem unwise to take the workers for granted by mistreating them and abusing their rights. One should understand that though they are in the lower class than he or she is, they are the very people who have contributed to his or her success. They therefore need to be respected more than even close friends and motivate them to continue working. From this account, a general inference can be made that there is no much academic qualification that is required for starting a caf in Kuwait. This does not however imply that there is totally no any kind of learning that takes place while running the business. The reality is that much learning that takes place in this sector is informal as opposed to the formal education that is obligatory in many other sectors. Informal training in this realm is endless which means that once a person engages in that business, he or she will constantly be learning something day after the other. As a matter of fact, people will never have enough food; they will keep looking for new varieties of food unlike herbivores which feed on herbs all through their lives. Bearing this in mind, an entrepreneur will be obliged to be innovative and creative in order to come up with foodstuffs that can be enjoyed by his or her customers in a number of years (Bradford, 2012). Preparing good food heightens the businesss reputation and it makes people think of the best caf whenever they feel hungry. This has the implication that the only way to win the customers loyalty is to prepare something that best-fits their tastes. They should also be served in the best etiquette in order to lure them. Entrepreneurs ought to understand that iif customers do not get the best products, they are likely to look for it elsewhere (Bradford, 2012). As coming up with a new foodstuff mostly involve the trial and error method, it is necessary for the entrepreneur to indicate to the customers the newly developed foodstuffs and to invite comments from them about it. This form grounds for making decisions on whether to continue preparing the foodstuff or not depending on the profit acquired. Likes and Dislikes of the Job Likes For one to prevail in this business, he or she must value the society and hearken to its request of more and more things to come. This makes the business harder every single day but it should make one more eager to learn from them (Matt Kuke et al., 2001). This is a special and an important component in business as it enables one serve his or her customers appropriately and hence retain them. Additionally, such people are able to receive feedbacks concerning their products and services, something that help them adjust appropriately (Bradford, 2012). Dislikes The fact that one cannot be able to satisfy all his or her customers satisfactorily is one of the major dislikes a success-aspirant entrepreneur. One will often regret the fact that despite it being his or her intention to meet, and when possible exceed, the customers wants, it sometimes becomes impossible as human beings have different likes and tastes (Matt Kuke et al. 2001). Satisfaction is also a virtue that is absent in all humans since their wants are unlimited. As such, it is possible that there will still be complaints even when best services have been provided. Starting the Small Business For someone to start a business and reap something meaningful from it, there must be some source of motivation to drive the person towards his or her preset goals. It is however quite difficult, if not totally impossible, for one to succeed in doing something that has no any source of motivation. It is advisable for people to start businesses that make meaning to them and they make sense from it. It is important to note that when one loves something, he or she is able to give it his or her best, become creative and move an extra mile. From this point of view, three main components necessary for a business to succeed can be identified: determination, uniqueness and love for the customers (Bradford, 2012). Use of Technology Unlike with the other businesses, running a caf in Kuwait does not require any use of technology. The business is more craft oriented hence the business becomes less demanding in terms of technological devices and engineers to operate them (Baron Armstrong, 2005). This reduces production cost and it consequently increases the returns. Contrary to many peoples expectation, keeping of records does not depend on any form of technology; instead, it is done manually. Career outlook Generally, it can be inferred that starting a personal business in Kuwait is way cheaper as compared to other developed countries like the United States. In Kuwait, there is little emphasis on the use of technology in running cafeterias which is a contrast with the United States where the requirement is averse. Other requirements required to start a personal cafeteria are quite low including educational qualifications of both the workers and the entrepreneur him or herself. Purpose of the performance management system A company is considered successful if it is able to attain its goals at the preset time. In other words, an organization becomes effective when it accomplishes its goals through the realization of the vision and mission of the company (Asim, Erica, Koliba, 2011). Performance management helps in communicating the objectives and the goals of the organization, joining people together to work as a team, evaluate individuals performance, as well as providing credible results of the companys performance. Strategic performance management is crucial since it determines the kind of progress taking place within the company. This implies that if the performance management is bad, then the outcomes of the companys performance will be bad and vice versa. Another benefit of strategic performance is the fact that it helps in creating a capable workforce (Baron Armstrong, 2005). This means that both the company leaders and employees are able to work together and share ideas which they think could be important in developing the company. There are healthy relationships created among the employees and this ascertains that their time is perfectly utilized avoiding any instances of unhealthy relationships such as sexual relationships, something that would contribute to nepotism within the business. All areas that could be hindrances to the well-being of the company are identified and any the appropriate measures are to prevent inconveniences within the organization. Strategic performance management also helps in improving employees motivation. Motivation can simply be defined as the instinct to perform the assigned tasks within the company (Ohemeng Frank, 2011). When workers are self-motivated, efficiency within the company is improved because they perform on themselves under less supervision. Additionally, the kind of work that they give produce is of higher quality ensuring that the companys products are of a recommendable quality too. Commitment consequently leads to the other benefit of strategic performance management. It builds a credible employees commitment to the company. Where performance management is well used, an adequate process of identifying and eliminating all the performance barriers are devised (Guthrie Messersmith, 2010). Managers are able to discern all the sectors that are performing poorly and subsequently assess what could be the root cause of the poor performance. Some examples of performance barriers could be inadequa te tools and equipments, improper supervision within a particular sector, poor culture and hazy representation of the vision of the company. When these are evident, appropriate measures are taken to ensure that the company does not recede and any instances of collapsing are reduced. Finally, strategic performance management helps in creating a performance culture, also known as the organizational culture (Mia, Sands, Iselin, 2011). Organizational culture refers to the kind of environment created by the constant interactions between the employees and their workplace. An organizational culture is important because it ensures there are healthy relationships within the organization, both the leaders and the employees are able to conceptualize the goals of the company, minimizes go-slows, encourage team work and the company is able to make more returns. When all these are collectively achieved, the company skyrockets above its opponents and thrives in its environment (Lffler Bovaird, 2009). Difference between Managing a Business in Kuwait and in the US The use of technology is important in record keeping and for tax reasons. Considering that businesses in Kuwait lay less emphasis on integration of technology in record keeping, it is likely that tax collection is not as effective as it is with the other nations such as the United States. It is also important to note that a business is not based on public speaking but rather on good interpersonal communications and social networking (Mia, Sands, Iselin, 2011). This means that there should be a perfect network between the suppliers, customers and the business itself to enhance proper working environment and therefore stimulate growth of the business. Conclusion Bearing in mind the cost of starting a business in the United States and comparing it with Kuwait, it can be inferred that setting up a business in Kuwait is cheaper as compared to the US. The management of the business is also different in the two countries as Kuwait has fewer restrictions on keeping of records. This shows that competition in Kuwait is not as tight as it is in the United States. As already observed earlier, proper management is crucial for the running of the business. It enables a business achieve its goals and keeps the investment focused hence avoiding risks. To become a business manager, it all takes passion, humility and self devotion to ones business. Buy custom As Managing Small Business essay

Monday, October 21, 2019

Free Essays on Lost In Yonkers

The overall criticism of â€Å"Lost in Yonkers† is that the characters are rich with many sides and that they provide the plot with enough complexity to make the story work well. I, on the other hand, think that there wasn’t enough to the characters. I think that the story could have used a character that was a stereotype for a specific character trait. At the beginning of this play we meet the tyrannical grandmother, product of the old world, that has been hardened by her life experiences, i.e. losing two of her children. It seems that during the entire story she never deviates from the stereotype we discover her in. I think that it would have added more complexity if the grandmother would have shown some compassion sometime. The woman was known to have money but when her son comes asking for help out of a bad situation becoming worse, she did not offer to give her son the money to help him out of his problem. Not only that, she could have been more sensitive and loaned out the money and have him work off the debt with her, on a certain timetable. But in the whole spirit of the negotiations, she wasn’t even willing to watch his kids for a time so that he could earn the money on his own. This is just the beginning of the character we get to know. Other scenes that continue the generalization of grandma are ones that show her unwilling to let her grandchild stay in the house, but make them labors to supposedly make up the cost of them staying with her. She also makes them incur the costs of any â€Å"robberies†, even when she knows the culprits are her family or even herself. I can’t imagine what it would be like to have a grandmother that would make you pay for someone stealing from her store when it was herself that did it. There were other characters that showed these same characteristics. Like Uncle Louie, he was always the smooth gangster that wouldn’t put up with grandma’s grief. Even with him it was too constant. I thi... Free Essays on Lost In Yonkers Free Essays on Lost In Yonkers The overall criticism of â€Å"Lost in Yonkers† is that the characters are rich with many sides and that they provide the plot with enough complexity to make the story work well. I, on the other hand, think that there wasn’t enough to the characters. I think that the story could have used a character that was a stereotype for a specific character trait. At the beginning of this play we meet the tyrannical grandmother, product of the old world, that has been hardened by her life experiences, i.e. losing two of her children. It seems that during the entire story she never deviates from the stereotype we discover her in. I think that it would have added more complexity if the grandmother would have shown some compassion sometime. The woman was known to have money but when her son comes asking for help out of a bad situation becoming worse, she did not offer to give her son the money to help him out of his problem. Not only that, she could have been more sensitive and loaned out the money and have him work off the debt with her, on a certain timetable. But in the whole spirit of the negotiations, she wasn’t even willing to watch his kids for a time so that he could earn the money on his own. This is just the beginning of the character we get to know. Other scenes that continue the generalization of grandma are ones that show her unwilling to let her grandchild stay in the house, but make them labors to supposedly make up the cost of them staying with her. She also makes them incur the costs of any â€Å"robberies†, even when she knows the culprits are her family or even herself. I can’t imagine what it would be like to have a grandmother that would make you pay for someone stealing from her store when it was herself that did it. There were other characters that showed these same characteristics. Like Uncle Louie, he was always the smooth gangster that wouldn’t put up with grandma’s grief. Even with him it was too constant. I thi...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Timeline of the Persian Wars 492-449

Timeline of the Persian Wars 492-449 The Persian Wars (sometimes known as the Greco-Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, beginning in 502 BCE and running some 50 years, until 449 BCE. The seeds for the wars was planted in 547 BCE when the Persian emperor, Cyrus the Great, conquered  Greek Ionia. Before this, the Greek city-states and the Persian Empire,  centered in what is now modern-day Iran, had maintained an uneasy coexistence, but this expansion by the Persians would eventually lead to war.   Timeline and Summary of the Persian Wars 502 BCE,  Naxos: An unsuccessful attack by the Persians on the large island of Naxos, midway between Crete and the current Greek mainland,  paved the way to revolts by Ionian settlements occupied by the Persians in Asia Minor. The Persian Empire had gradually expanded to occupy Greek settlements in Asia Minor, and the success of Naxos at repelling the Persians encouraged the Greek settlements to consider rebellion.  c. 500 BCE, Asia Minor: The first revolts by Green Ionian regions of Asia Minor began, in reaction to oppressive tyrants appointed by the Persians to oversee the territories.  498 BCE, Sardis:  Ã‚  Persians, led by Aristagoras with Athenian and Eritrean allies, occupied Sardis, located along what is now the western coast of Turkey. The city was burned, and the Greeks met and were defeated by a Persian force. This was the end of the Athenian involvement in the Ionian  revolts.492 BCE, Naxos: When the Persians invaded, the inhabitants of the island fled. The Per sians burned settlements, but the nearby island of Delos was spared. This marked the first invasion of Greece by the Persians, led by Mardonius. 490 BCE, Marathon: The first Persian invasion of Greece ended with Athens decisive victory over the Persians at Marathon, in the Attica region, north of Athens.  480 BCE, Thermopylae, Salamis: Led by Xerxes, the Persians in their second invasion of Greece defeated the combined Greek forces at the Battle of Thermopylae. Athens soon falls, and the Persians overrun most of Greece. However, at the Battle of Salamis, a large island west of Athens, the combined Greek navy decisively beat the Persians. Xerxes retreated to Asia.  479 BCE, Plataea:  Persians retreating from their loss at Salamis encamped at Plataea, a small town northwest of Athens, where combined Greek forces badly defeated the Persian army, led by Mardonius. This defeat effectively ended the second Persian invasion. Later that year, combined Greek forces went on the offensive to expel Persian forces from Ionian settlements in Sestos and Byzantium.  478 BCE, Delian League: A joint effort of Greek city-states, the Del ian League formed to combine efforts against the Persians. When Spartas actions alienated many of the Greek city-states, they united under the leadership of Athens, thereby beginning what many historians view as the start of the Athenian Empire. Systematic expulsion of the Persians from settlements in Asia now began, continuing for 20 years.   476 to 475 BCE, Eion: Athenian general Cimon captured this important Persian stronghold, where Persian armies stored huge stores of supplies. Eion was located west of the island of Thasos and south of what is now the border of Bulgaria, at the mouth of the Strymon River.  468 BCE, Caria: General Cimon freed the coastal towns of Caria from the Persians in a series of land and sea battles. Southern Aisa Minor from Cari to Pamphylia (the region of what is now Turkey between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean) soon became part of the Athenian Federation.  456 BCE, Prosopitis: To support a local Egyptian rebellion in the Nile River Delta, Greek forces were besieged by remaining Persian forces and were badly defeated. This marked the beginning of the end of Delian League expansionism under Athenian leadership  449 BCE, Peace of Callias: Persia and Athens signed a peace treaty, although, to all intents and purposes, hostilities had ended several years earlier. Soon, Athens would find itself in the middle of the Peloponnesian Wars as Sparta, and other city-states rebelled against Athenian supremacy.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Lowe's Financial Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Lowe's Financial Analysis - Essay Example A horizontal analysis, according to Accounting Management allows the analysts to look at the factors that cause the changes in the operation. Accounting Coach describes vertical analysis as a method of examining accounts as a percentage of another item and will be shown as a common-size balance sheet. This kind of analysis permits me to compare Lowe’s balance sheet to another company. Thus, analysis of the balance sheet of Lowe Company is stated as a percentage of total asset. (See Annex 6) In the financial statement, vertical analysis of Lowe Company (See Annex 7) will be presented as a percentage of sales, and allows me to compare it with competition and industry average. 3. Calculation of at least five significant liquidity ratios for each of the five years analyzed. The five liquidity ratios used for analysis in Lowe are the current ratio, quick ratio, debt/equity ratio, accounts payable to sales and inventory turnover (See Annex 1 for calculations) 4 .Calculation of at least five significant profitability ratios for each of the five years analyzed. (See Annex 2) Ratios used are gross profit margin, net profit margin, return on sales, return on assets and return on equity. 6 Following guidelines of Accounting Management, long term debt paying ratios used in the study are debt coverage ratios, cash flow to current maturity of long term debt ratio and debt to equity, Ratio of fixed assets to shareholders funds and Proprietary of equity ratio (Accounting for Management) See Annex 4 Based on the Horizontal analysis of Lowe’s financial statement (see Annex 5) revenue in 2011 increased by $1,595million or by 0.03% as compared to sales & revenue in 2010. This change is accompanied by an increase in cost of sales which is equal to the 3% increase in 2011. In other years, from 2007 to 2009, sales are not enough to

Friday, October 18, 2019

Organization Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Organization - Research Paper Example The companies selected for analysis are IBM (manufacturing company. Following Reed (2001): â€Å"Motivation must be understood not as a series of separate "needs" but as the dynamic aspect of the very functioning of a living organism. In other words, any living organism is, in effect, a pattern of intrinsically active and directed relational functioning† (p. 60). These meanings may be expressed in organization writings, thought, or language management, and social context, an organization sustains its own cultural system of symbols and meanings that can be widely shared by organizational members. the main difference between content’ and ‘process’ theories of motivation. is that the latter determines motivation as a cognitive rational process while the former sees motivation as needs satisfaction process. Motivation is the main factors which helps companies to attract and retain top talents. The task of the HR manager is to envision these threats in advance, so he will be able to avoid them, or at least minimize their negati ve impact upon well-being. Although managers do not find it a comfortable activity to dwell on unpleasant events, the future survival of organizations and society, itself, mandates that we try to anticipate worst-case scenarios and develop creative methods to manage them. Motivation programs should be effective and management policies should ensure success and positive outcomes. The main methods used by managers will be goal setting method and the leadership. If too much stress is placed on getting the work done, human motivation will suffer. The main strategies applied to the program will be motivation and inspiring employees, cooperation and support initiatives. If all of the emphasis is placed on workers satisfaction, then productivity will suffer. Further, a HR manager can share this expertise with other managers and employees, so that the total organization expands

Position Paper On Negative Campaigning In The Local Politics Essay

Position Paper On Negative Campaigning In The Local Politics - Essay Example This is perhaps the only reason for its dislike with the general public. The medium for negative campaigning can include ads, speeches, pamphlets etc. but is most successful in ads especially in modern elections. Trevor Parry-Giles and Shawn J. Parry-Giles in their paper "Embracing the Mess: Reflections on Campaign 2000", believe that modern politics has degenerated gravely. They take issue with a section of academics who believe that the problem of negative campaigning and especially negative advertising has been greatly exaggerated. The two contend that the issue of negative campaigning and its harmful effects are underestimated. They do agree that the most used negative ads are contrast ads which show a difference in position between a candidate and his opponent. However they also point out that negative ads that insult, that are false and misleading and plain dangerous thrive "under the radar of mainstream media" (722). Before we go any further, we need to explain exactly what is meant by the term negative campaigning. Richard R. Lau and Gerald M. Pomper in their paper "Effectiveness of Negative Campaigning in U.S. Senate Elections" describe negative campaigning as focusing on the defects of your opponents, be they campaign policies or personal failures. Positive campaigning is the simple opposite, with the focus on a candidate's own persona, his policies, strengths and successes. Early studies in experimental research have indicated that people were indeed repelled by negative campaign ads which in turn led to low voter turnout. Recent research, which has been generally survey research, on the other hand vindicates the view that people may be influenced more by negative campaigning than they would like to believe. Psychologically it has been attributed to the fact that humans are wired to respond more to negative information than the positive. As explained by Paul Martin in his essay, "Inside the Black Box of Negative Campaign Effects: Three Reasons Why Negative Campaigns Mobilize" man's involuntary stimulation to negative information is primeval, generated by the need for a quick response to what can be a threat to us. Martin cites a host of critics and theorists to prove that negative information generates a quick and heightened level of awareness in people. He claims in his paper that a predisposed susceptibility to negative information or in this case negative campaigns move people toward political participation rather than away from it.Though there is felt to be a preponderance of negative campaigns today, they have been around for decades. A famous negative campaign ad was the Daisy ad utilized by Lyndon B. Johnson to defeat Barry Goldwater in the 1964 U.S. Presidential elections. The ad shows a young girl counting the petals of a daisy, symbolizing innocence and fragility. The image of the girl then is replaced by the mushroom cloud effect of a nuclear explosion. The point of the ad was to convey to the American people that only Johnson was equipped to handle the responsibility of being the President of a country with nuclear power. Johnson won by a landslide. According to Martin, negative campaigns work in three ways to influence voters. They raise awareness of pertinent public issues; they stimulate "anxiety" about a particular candidate and influence perceptions of a close and tight race

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Analysis and Action Plan for a Middle School Teacher of English Essay

Analysis and Action Plan for a Middle School Teacher of English Language Learners - Essay Example In this classroom, Mr. O’Malley tends to use the natural approach and English Language Development (ELD) in Maria’s case even though it was not successfully as she could not interact with others. The ELD strategy involves the use of systematic instructional strategy that is designed to enhance English acquisition by students to whom English is not the primary language (WIDA, 2012). In this case, the learners interact with each other. Mr. O’Malley made sure that Maria’s classmates assisted her and included her in every activity. The natural language acquisition process has the student developing basic communication skills first and focusses on fluency while speaking English in a social context. The heterogeneous grouping of the natural process was through ensuring that Maria got included in every activity. In the case of Mikhail, Mr. O’Malley used the strategy of connecting learning to previous knowledge; though it was unsuccessful as he could not write a good essay without grammatical issues. The strategy comprises providing the student with new topic connections or events from the learner’s background and making them give a connection between the vocabulary in their first language and English. Mikhail had been schooling in the United for two years; thus he does not have a problem communicating in class, but his main problem is in grammatical mistakes. Therefore, linking his knowledge of English learned in the college to his first language can help improve his grammar. After and before reading, students tend to respond to prompts that assist them in linking their experiences to the main theme and characters (Curtin, 2009). The instructional inputs that follow the prompts give oral language practice for the ELLs and assist in deepening the students’ comprehension conceptual framework. Researchers discovered that the instructional input increases comprehension for the ELLs and deepens their

Principles of advertising Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Principles of advertising - Essay Example However, the vast variety of brands and products may also be the companys biggest weakness as it makes it almost a certainty that some items will not become popular. It also makes it difficult to give all of their products enough attention when it comes to staying up-to-date with market changes. Regardless, PepsiCo has the opportunity to increase sales at almost any time simply by exploiting their strongest markets through raised prices and the introduction of new, well-researched, and desirable products. The biggest threat to the continued growth of PepsiCo is the Coca-Cola Company, whose focus on beverages has kept it on top of the market. PepsiCo is a strong company with a lot of power and much to offer the public. Moving forward, they will likely be focused on overtaking Coke. The only way to accomplish this may be to become less diverse, so that more time and resources can be given to their top

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Analysis and Action Plan for a Middle School Teacher of English Essay

Analysis and Action Plan for a Middle School Teacher of English Language Learners - Essay Example In this classroom, Mr. O’Malley tends to use the natural approach and English Language Development (ELD) in Maria’s case even though it was not successfully as she could not interact with others. The ELD strategy involves the use of systematic instructional strategy that is designed to enhance English acquisition by students to whom English is not the primary language (WIDA, 2012). In this case, the learners interact with each other. Mr. O’Malley made sure that Maria’s classmates assisted her and included her in every activity. The natural language acquisition process has the student developing basic communication skills first and focusses on fluency while speaking English in a social context. The heterogeneous grouping of the natural process was through ensuring that Maria got included in every activity. In the case of Mikhail, Mr. O’Malley used the strategy of connecting learning to previous knowledge; though it was unsuccessful as he could not write a good essay without grammatical issues. The strategy comprises providing the student with new topic connections or events from the learner’s background and making them give a connection between the vocabulary in their first language and English. Mikhail had been schooling in the United for two years; thus he does not have a problem communicating in class, but his main problem is in grammatical mistakes. Therefore, linking his knowledge of English learned in the college to his first language can help improve his grammar. After and before reading, students tend to respond to prompts that assist them in linking their experiences to the main theme and characters (Curtin, 2009). The instructional inputs that follow the prompts give oral language practice for the ELLs and assist in deepening the students’ comprehension conceptual framework. Researchers discovered that the instructional input increases comprehension for the ELLs and deepens their

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Agreed-Upon Values that Are Lived by the Team in Twelve Angry Men Essay - 1

Agreed-Upon Values that Are Lived by the Team in Twelve Angry Men - Essay Example The team unanimously believes in this value and for that reason, it does share one aspect of a high performing team. It is expected that the team would perform well because all members agree that if the boy has committed the murder of his father, then he should be punished. However, the jury in order to punish the offender has to reach a unanimous decision. The vote of all the jurors should be either in favor or in disfavor of the death sentence. As a team, they need to reach one decision. Yes. The team does have a clear and attainable goal. The goal is to reach a vote where the tally is 9-0 and for this, they fight the entire story. For well-performing teams to function efficiently, they need to have the same vision and goal. While the vision of the team is the same and that is to reach the right decision. However, the team it seems is prejudiced from the beginning. Were it not for the case of reasonable doubt raised by Juror 8, the whole team would have reached the wrong decision. Hence the conflict raised by Juror 8 allowed the team to perform their duty with more responsibility and care. Otherwise, they would have reached the conclusion of awarding the boy a death sentence based on his background. The team does not have the skills and willingness to deal with the situation. They were ordinary members of the society and they have probably never given jury duty before. Most of them are also not willing to deal with the conflict. They want to reach the verdict as soon as possible because they want to resume their own normal life after the verdict. Because of the conflict created by Juror 8, the team members are quite willing to speak their mind. They openly criticize each other and at one point they even resort to personal criticism. They openly discussed the case and even play-acted the situation. However, this is unusual as the team had been formed for a short period of time.

Monday, October 14, 2019

The Big Decision Essay Example for Free

The Big Decision Essay An accountant is expected to be both an accountant and a professional. An accountant should follow general professional obligations. After the incidents involving Arthur Anderson, Enron, and WorldCom, the role of a professional accountant was changed. Brooks (2007) stated, â€Å"Professional accountants owe their primary loyalty to the public interest, not just to their own financial interests, company directors or management, or current shareholders at the expense of future shareholders. † (Chap. 1, p. 22). Decisions made by executives should reflect their corporation’s ethical values. In knowing this information, the case of Daniel Potter and his employer Baker Greenleaf raises some concern. I will address the dilemmas of the case, the stakeholders involved, and the course of action that Daniel Potter should take. (Brooks, 2007) Baker Greenleaf is a large accounting firm. Actually, they are one of the Big Eight accounting firms. Daniel Potter was a recent graduate of an Ivy League school before working for Baker Greenleaf. He understood the values and work ethics that he should follow. There came a time when he was assigned an account which was not new to Baker Greenleaf. The account was very important. In the past, Baker Greenleaf shared the account with another Big Eight accounting firm. Baker felt that they should be the only accounting firm that serviced that long-standing account. In order to achieve this, they believed that they needed to deliver a satisfactory performance in their auditing services with the company. After Dan completed the audit, he discovered concerns in which he could not solve. Dan’s estimate and the balance sheet value of real estate property resulted in a difference of opinion which significantly affected the income statement by more than three percent. Dan’s first reaction was to include a subject –to-opinion proviso, which included his findings, along with his report. His supervisor disagreed with his actions and wanted Dan to issue a clean opinion. At the end of the day, Dan’s supervisor removed Dan’s investigation from the files and replaced it with a clean opinion. He also delivered a negative evaluation of Dan’s performance on the audit. The dilemma in this case is that Dan was undecided as to the course of action he should take regarding his analysis that was replaced with his supervisor’s clean opinion (Brooks, 2007). The stakeholders involved in this case were investors, clients, buyers, as well as the company who was presented with the audit. Since the value of the property was inflated to almost two million dollars over its actual value, buyers were being misled. With Baker Greenleaf basically putting their stamp of approval on the audit, they are taking part in their client’s scheme. Baker is more concerned with profits than with the ethical values they should uphold. If the public ever found out about this scheme, the company could possible go out of business and investors could stand losing a great deal of money. Investors, clients, as well as buyers of the real estate are entitled to be aware of the activities that are taking place in the company. Let’s discuss some of the processes of decision making as well as the actions that should be taken. In order to make ethical decisions, accounts should possess values of integrity, honesty, objectivity, skill and discretion. They should also exercise due care, professional skepticism, and pledge to place the needs of the public, the client, the profession, and the employer or firm before the professional’s own self interest. In making an ethical decision, Dan should follow the framework for ethical problem solving which involves eight steps. He should first establish objectivity. Baker Greenleaf is doing the analysis. Their interest is to acquire the long-standing account. The ground rules of the company seem to be honesty and professionalism since the real estate subsidiary gave them problems in the past (Brooks, 2007). Next the problem needs to be identified. The problem is that Dan’s supervisor does not want to submit a report that discloses negative information on the real estate subsidiary. The subsidiary fabricated the value of their larges real estate property at two million dollars when it was actually valued at no more than one hundred thousand dollars. This problem that has been uncovered belongs to the subsidiary as well as Baker Greenleaf. It is a problem for the subsidiary because they are misleading their real estate buyers on the value of the property. Their buyers will buy a property in excess of the amount that is essentially worth. Baker Greenleaf can be help liable for real estate property bought by buyers that was overpriced. Third, Dan should use the five-question framework to analyze the situation. Since Baker Greenleaf is one of the Big Eight accounting firms, they should have ground rules that govern all of their accountants to abide by all rules and possess ethical decision making skills. The stakeholders are the clients and buyers of the subsidiary as well as the subsidiary and Baker Greenleaf. The subsidiary has a right to make any decision regarding their company and their asses, but any decisions related to the audit of the subsidiary are made by Baker Greenleaf. It seems as of the ground rules of the subsidiary are to carry out any means that will generate the most profit for the company. They do not have any ethical principles or rules. Their current rules and principles are not fair to all concerned. Fourth, Dan ought to determine the cause of the problem. The rules are being broken so that the company can make a bigger profit. The rules are being broken Prima facie. After reviewing the evidence, the problem was discovered. Dan’s supervisor doesn’t posses ethical values. He is only concerned about how he will be perceived by the executives within the firm. After that, the objective must be established. The desirable outcome is to report a subject-of-opinion to indicate the material difference in opinion regarding the value of the subsidiary’s largest real estate property. Dan wanted the executives of the firm to be aware that the financial statements were subject to a $1. million dollar adjustment. The timeframe is within the next couple of days. This is measurable. Next, Dan needs to explore his options. Dan can raise his concerns with his partner counselor as well as the personnel department along with any evidence he has exposed. He can also quit the job and look for anther place of employment without any attempt to inform someone else of his findings. The seventh step is to decide on the best solution. If Dan goes to his partner with his concerns, they may or may not look into the situation. If he leaves Baker Greenleaf without informing someone else, they may still have this problem without any knowledge of it. They could possibly be sued by their negligence. The decision to that should be implemented is to inform Dan’s partner counselor as well as the personnel department. It may affect his supervisor’s creditability but the credibility of the firm is much more important. The final step for Dan is to plan and implement the decision. He should gather all evidence showing his findings as well as document when he spoke to his supervisor about the issue. He should also document what was discussed. In the case of Dan and Baker Greenleaf accounting firm, we reviewed the dilemmas of the case, the stakeholders involved, and the course of action that Daniel Potter should take. If the public could bust down the doors of corporate headquarters and demand financial information, then we may not need accountants to validate the information. For now, we must comply with the laws and hope that the people we believe in being honest and ethical continue to be responsible and never forget that the public stakeholders.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Effect Of Cystic Fibrosis On Epithelial Cells Biology Essay

Effect Of Cystic Fibrosis On Epithelial Cells Biology Essay Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a glycoprotein found in the plasma membrane of exocrine organ cells, and is composed of about ~1500 amino acids1,2. Identified as an ion channel, the CFTR is composed of five domains: 2 transmembrane domains, 2 nucleotide-binding domains (NBD) and an R domain1,5. Transmembrane domains have 6 alpha helixes each, and are embedded in the plasma membrane as a transmembrane protein like its name suggests. NBDs are connected to transmembrane domains, and its role is to interact with ATP for opening of the ion channel, along with the R domain1. R domain, a domain that is unique only to the CFTR protein, regulates the ion channel along with NBDs by ATP phosphorylation1. CFTR is found in cells of most exocrine organs, including the lung, liver, pancreas, and the sweat glands1,3,4. In a normal individual, CFTR protein plays a significant role over reabsorption of salt in some tissues such as the sweat glands, while in other tissues (like the intestines), CFTR regulates hydration of the lumen by secreting Cl- ions1. Protein kinase A phosphoylates the NBDs and the R domain, which then activates CFTR. When NBD and the R domains are phosphoylated by ATP, lung cells then are able to secrete Cl- ions via activated CFTR, and water follows Cl- ions outside the cell due to the hypertonicity of the cell1. However, this is not the case for patients suffering from Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Cystic Fibrosis is mostly caused by mutations in the CFTR gene3. F508, a common mutation of the CFTR gene, deletes 3 base pairs from the nucleotide sequence of the CFTR gene3. Although the deletion seems miniscule, this mutation alters the phenotype of the CFTR protein, rendering CFTR protein useless. The CFTR protein is still found in patients with F508 mutation, but the protein loses its function, and does not allow passage of Cl- ions3. Most CF patients with F508 mutation find their condition fatal before the age of 302. In the lung for example, mutated CFTR protein does not allow Cl- ions to escape into the lumen1,4. This creates a build up of Cl- ions and negative charge inside the cell, which increases the intake of positive Na+ ions via Na+ channels into the cell to balance the negative charge. Due to hypotonicity of the cell because of unbalanced ion levels, the cell increases the intake of water from the lumen. This results in dehydration of the lungs and buildup of thick mucus in absence of water1,2,4. The thick mucus layer is harder for cilia on the lung cells to remove, and therefore debris and bacteria from inhalation sticks to the mucus layer. The mucus layer can obstruct the air passages, as well as increase the chance of bacterial lung infection. Although treating CF has become more effective in recent years, there is still no known cure for CF2. Curing CF would mean restoring CFTRà ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ã‚ ¢s function and phenotype in all cells that contain CFTR in their plasma membrane, but this has proven to be a difficult task, because CFTR are found in various types of cells, and its mechanism changes slightly depending on the tissue the protein is embedded in2. A research in gene therapy does not aim to cure CF completely, but rather targets defect CFTR proteins in the lung of the patient by delivering normal CFTR genes to the target tissue, allowing normal CFTR production in epithelial cells of the lung2. Gene therapy research by Genetic Science Learning Center in University of Utah is looking at inserting a CFTR gene into a vector (eg. a virus), and infecting lung cells with modified viruses which will integrate the normal CFTR gene into the gene of the host cell2. The host cells which are integrated with normal CFTR genes will produce functioning CFTR proteins, removing the effects of dehydration and thick mucus in the lungs. Lung cells were chosen because the modified virus can be easily delivered via inhalers2. Theoretically, gene therapy seems promising for curing CF, but researchers have faced many challenges. Human trials for gene therapy were run in 1993, 1995, and 1998, and all trials proved ineffective in treating CF in the lungs2. The first human trial in 1993 used adenovirus as a vector, and delivered full length CFTR gene to lung cells using inhalers2. The results showed that because of the low doses of adenovirus in the treatment, the virus could not enter and infect lung cells easily. When patients were treated with higher doses of genetically modified viruses, an immune response was triggered in most patients, and they fought off the adenovirus2. Similar results were shown in human trials of 1995 and 1998. In conclusion, Cystic Fibrosis is the result of a mutation of the CFTR gene that disrupts the phenotype of the CFTR protein found in the plasma membrane of exocrine organs1-5. Loss of function in CFTR protein does not allow exchange of Cl- ions between the cytoplasm and its environment, which affects Na+ and water concentration of the cell and the lumen. By inserting a normal CFTR gene into cells affected with CF, gene therapy researchers hope to create normally functioning CFTR proteins in the plasma membrane of the cells, but integrating the normal CFTR gene into an affected cell have proven to be a difficult task2. Annotated References 1. Hwang, TC, Nagel, G, Nairn, AC, Gadsby, DC. (1994). Regulation of the gating of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductanceregulator c1 channels by phosphorylation and atp hydrolysis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 91(11), 4698-702. The article studies the mechanism behind opening CFTR protein to allow exchange of Cl- ions. It goes to explain the structure of CFTR, as well as the molecules/enzymes involved such as protein kinase A. 2. Genetic Science Learning Center (2010) Choosing a vector for CF gene therapy. University of Utah Learn.Genetics. Retrieved February 15, 2010, from http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/tech/genetherapy/cysticfibrosis/vector.html These case studies explain Cystic Fibrosis disorder in depth, and explain why CF is a good candidate for gene therapy. The study also describes how gene therapy can be used to treat CF. 3. Bobadilla, JL, Macek, M, Fine, JP, Farrell, PM. (2002). Cystic fibrosis: a worldwide analysis of cftr mutationscorrelation with incidence data and application to screening.. Hurn Mutat, 19(6), 575-606. This article looks at mutations that occur frequently on the CFTR gene, and identifies Delta F508 allele as the most common mutated allele. 4. Xu, Y, Szep, S, Lu, Z. (2009). The Antioxidant role of thiocyanate in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis and other inflammation-related diseases. PNAS, 106(48), 20515-20519. The article describes the cells CFTR protein can be found in. The article also briefly describes the consequences of a thick mucus in the lung, and the mechanism of CFTR. 5. Arcellana-Panlilio, M. (2010, February 02). Plasma membrane ii. Retrieved from https://blackboard.ucalgary.ca/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tab_id=_2_1url=%2fwebapps%2fblackboard%2fexecute%2flauncher%3ftype%3dCourse%26id%3d_73080_1%26url%3d The notes describe the structure of and mechanism of CFTR protein in detail. Notes also describe the importance of tonicity between the cell and its environment.