Thursday, November 28, 2019

Research Development free essay sample

These activities include initiating and nurturing partnerships, networks, and alliances between and among faculty at their institutions and funding agencies; and designing and implementing strategic services for their faculty and researcher constituents (such as workshops, trainings, program officer visits, proposal editing, PR communications, funding opportunity searches and dissemination, budget preparation, forms and submission assistance, research team building and administering campus limited submission reviews). 2] Research Development professionals initiate and nurture critical partnerships and alliances wrought the institutional research enterprise and between institutions-?and with their external stakeholders. With the goal of enabling competitive individual and team research and facilitating research excellence, Research Development professionals build and implement strategic set-vices and collaborative resources that span across disciplinary and administrative barriers wit hin their organizations and beyond. 3] Research Development differs significantly from university development (institutional fundraising or advancement) in that RD is not aimed at attracting contributions or nations. Rather, RD strengthens research programs and proposals to make them more competitive for extramural contracts and grants from federal and state agencies, and grant-making foundations that fund research. We will write a custom essay sample on Research Development or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Similarly, RD should not be confused with Research and Development or RD which refers to investments in (often) corporate scientific and technological research that leads to new products and applications. Recent contractions in the availability of public and private research funding have intensified competition for fewer resources among universities. This trend has amplified the need for Research Development assistance and interventions at universities in order to enhance research excellence and competitiveness-[4] These services have not traditionally been offered through university sponsored research and projects offices that administer the submission of grant proposals and research funds management. In response to these challenges, Research Development is increasingly becoming a standard practice at universities, particularly Doctoral/research universities-extensive (AKA Research I University as defined by the Carnegie Classification Of Institutions Of Higher Education that place a high priority on research and rely heavily on extramural funding. 5] Research Development professionals and services are typically housed in a universitys central Office of Research (or similar), or within a more specific department or research unit devoted to a particular discipline or school. Research Development activities are also included in some sponsored research and projects offices. There are also independent consulting firms that provide Research Development services. According to the National Organization of Research Development Professionals (NOR), there are currently over 245 research development professionals employed at over 1 20 institutions (colleges/ universities, teaching/not-for-profit hospitals, independent not-for-profit research organizations, national laboratories, research organizations wholly organized and administered by a college or university, consortia of colleges and universities, associations/societies with individual or institutional members predominantly from colleges and universities) across the united States. Research Development Activities Strategic Research Advancement ; Collaborate to identify areas of institutional research priorities ; Strategic Planning Support (information to leadership about opportunities/strengths/weaknesses) ; Advise UP/PVC for Research on issues related to research ; Serve as Ups/Vics for Research representative to university community and external visitors ; Manage or contribute to decisions regarding internal funding ; Provide research areas development support to include such things as formal partnerships with external entities or facilitating faculty participation ; Interactions with political leaders related to research initiatives at your institution ; Industry elaboration and partnerships ;

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Berly Markham essays

Berly Markham essays Beryl Markham lead a remarkable life; from the warm and wild farm in Njoro to the wide open skies over Nairobi, Beru, as most natives said her name of Laweit as Arab Maina called her established grand relationships with not only many of the people she came in contact with, but she also have some special bonds with many of the animals she encountered in her life. Although many of the students complained that some of her characters were one dimensional, her chapters lacked focus or even that she didnt dig deep enough into her personal life. I personally the Beryl Markham was an eccentric in her own rite and wrote about people, places and things that influenced her life the most. Besides that you have to give her praises, for such a unique style of writing. To begin to understand that Markhams childhood was not an ordinary one. Spent most of her youth growing up on a farm in Africa by her father. He father whom she loved dearly, was a very talented horse breeder who instilled the love of horses in Markham. When most girls Beryls age were playing with dolls and drinking tea, Beryl was learning to speak African languages and hunting with the Murani tribe who were in a sense much like Beryls family. Beryls father was away doing business much during the day Beryl the Muranis were much her keeper during the day. I think that her father was the first influential person that we come across in West with the Night Beryls mother left who left with Beryls brother Richard to return to England was really not a part of her life. Beryl looked up to her father, she admired his hard work and honesty and incorporated his words or wisdom in truth in her own life. She recalls the stories her father would tells her when she was younger. She says He would tell me old legends about Mount Kenya or about the Mengai Crater...I would ride alongside and ask endless questions (Markham 58). To think that...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Structured English Immersion in ArizonaSschools Research Paper

Structured English Immersion in ArizonaSschools - Research Paper Example Then SEI has achieved a new status in 1991as a result of advanced studies conducted by David Ramirez and he coined two basic components like teachers maximize instruction in English and teachers use and teach English at a level appropriate to the abilities of the ELL in the class (Clark 2009). As a result of adopting Proposition203 (English Language For Children in Public Schools) in November 2000 Arizona State established English as the official language of Arizona and demanded all public school education in the state be practiced in English. Charlene Rivera, Eric Collum states that; â€Å"ELL students are to be placed in a structured English immersion program for not more than 1 year, at which point they are mainstreamed in to English classrooms† (Rivera & Collum 2006, p.212). The web article The Case for Structured English Immersion gives valuable information about the implementation of SEI Programs in Arizona State. Kevin Clark said that Arizona’s English Language L earner Task Force launched in late 2006. In its initial stage many teachers and academics have confused with ESI programs with submersion. Some of them believed that the implementation of ESI task force in regular classrooms have little or no instructional modification. In spite of the jumble definitions, messages and grass root level emotions, educators and academics in Arizona district have implemented SEI programs in both elementary and secondary level. It is significant for a reader to understand that all materials and instructions in SEI programs are practiced in English since the beginning. Other important characteristics of SEI program is that it calls for direct, active and explicit instructional methods and strategies for SEI... This essay approves that Arizona district have implemented SEI programs in both elementary and secondary level which, the government is planning to propose in other levels. The SEI programs have basically divided the strategies into three components: policy, structure, and classroom practices. These strategies also take into account certain other factors like the size of the school, the location of the school, the grade levels at the school, the number of English language learners and the percentage of English language learners, and so on. This report makes a conclusion that the proposed study leads one to the inference that the implementation of SEI in Arizona schools had a greater impact among the students and the teachers and as such, it exerted a decisive role in uplifting the educational standards of that country. The critical analysis of the research topic unveils the fact that the Structured English Immersion in Arizona schools could influence and attract many students to English language learning. The SEI programs are well structured and it can certainly make the students aware of the systematic study of English language. The program has been designed for the students of the school and secondary levels to help them improving their language skills; specifically focusing on reading, writing, speaking and listening. The classes are scheduled for one year, four hours per day with the support of a well structured lesson plan and materials. The students are grouped by considering their ability in language use.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

A Super Computer Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

A Super Computer - Essay Example The problem was clear to the average reader and did not require a reader to go through it severally in order to understand the message that was being put across as the essay. However, the essay made hasty conclusions and provided incomplete arguments as the evidence that was provided was not sufficient to prove some of the points presented in the essay (White, 1996, 40). This is is seen in the argument that the computer is not capable of understanding the connection between between ideas in their own as this is a form of understanding that is developed by human being. Nonetheless, it shold also be noted that human beings are responsible for the manner in which computers work and all the input that that goes into them. Therefore, self-awareness for the computer cannt be ruled out as the computers can learn it from the human elements that the scientists input into it. The point that the essay states that agreeing to what the super computer is asking for on the basis of self-awareness will imply that the computer will not work in the way it is supposed to can be considered as an unknown fact. The main reason why this is considered as an unknown fact is that it cannot be used in science of philosophy and cannot be verified (White, 1996, 47). There is no way of being certain that the computer will fail to function as it is supposed to if it was allowed to continue operating with its self-awareness and if the scientists yield to its demand except through giving it that chance and making the decision after seeing the outcome.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Jim Crow laws Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Jim Crow laws - Essay Example Jim Crow laws It was reported that the racial economic gap between the blacks and whites tripled in the year 1984. At the same time slave trade was reported to increase significantly whereby, the blacks were overworked in the plantations, construction of American railway lines and in the mines. This made African Americans in the south to launch a civil war on April 1865, civil war continued to fight slavery and mistreatment of blacks by the whites. Before 1865 the civil war was successfully able to end slave trade. In above connection, the civil war was reported to be successful because it helped the African Americans to accumulate wealth. However, their efforts failed in the year 1874 due to their higher commitment on risky loans that were initially advanced to them by the whites. In addition, the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendment were further established and approved by the congress after the civil war. The Thirteenth amendment was established to abolish slavery while the Fourteenth amendment was established to protect human rights that were adversely affected by racial segregation. However, the two amendments continued to experience challenges because even after the enforcement they were altered by the majority whites to suit their needs and prevent equality between the whites and the blacks. In the year 1890 the state passed laws that were aimed at increasing racial segregation against the black people. One of the examples of these laws is the Jim Crow statute. This law was established after the civil war movement was over. ... In addition, they were not satisfied with the amendment in the laws which asserted passed that all people were to be treated equally and with dignity despite discrepancy in racial and ethnic set up. The above amendments made the southern state to become dissatisfied whereby, instead of implementing the resolutions made, they started making further amendments of the law. The first amendment was made in 1980 by the legislature and was supported by the U.S Supreme Court together with American whites in the southern parts. The Jim Crow system segregated blacks in all aspect of life. For example, in Birmingham, Albama, 1930, Jim Crow Law asserted that, it shall be unlawful for the white and Negro to accompany each other or play any game together. In Nebraska, 1911, Jim Crow Laws stated that marriage between a white person and any other race such as Japanese, Chinese and Negro shall be void. In Missouri, 1929, Jim Crow Law stated that separate school shall be established and it shall be un lawful for Childs of Negros to attend any white school and vice versa. In Tennessee, 1891, Jim Craw laws stated that it separate accommodation shall be provided for the white and colored people in all railroads that carry passengers in the state. Access to health care was also faced with racial discrimination by which, blacks were not supposed to attend the same hospital. For example, it was illegal for a white nurse to attend a black man irrespective of whether the patient is in critical condition. Racial segregation under Jim Crow Laws may further be observed in the case of Plessey vs. Ferguson (1896). In this case, 30 years old Plessey sat on a white car of East Louisiana Railroad and identified himself as a

Friday, November 15, 2019

Approaches of contemporary globalization

Approaches of contemporary globalization The term globalization is multi dimensional, and therefore it can be complex in its definition. It is a method where all political, economic, cultural and social activities start operating at a international level. In recent years there has been a unexpected growth in global connections with the people and communities around the world. The distance between different communities, cultures and countries has become less of a physical distance and can now communicate using new technology. Although the claim that contemporary globalization has made the nation state obsolete depends on which view you look at, as there are 3 different approaches to globalization. This globalization also depends on how you are looking at it from a cultural , economic,political or social point of view. In the UK today we are living in a very diverse society with a lot of different cultural backgrounds. With the use of the internet we are able to communicate around the world , and even the way we dress is starting to look similar to cultures from around the world and we are inspired by their style. This technology is a stepping stone for businesses to become bigger and expand world wide. A nation state is an independent country which has a large amount of people that share the same language, traditions and history but the nations state are being affected by globalization. There are 3 approaches to globalization, internationalist, transformationalist and globalist. The globalist view could be viewed in the eye of a pessimistic globalist or the optimistic or positive globalist. The optimistic view is that globalization is exciting and creating a more diverse society, but still recognise the dangers of global environmental pollution, positive globalizers argue that we could improve the position if we all took some responsibility for reducing unsustainable levels of consumption, and they point to the development of new technologies which are likely to reduce levels of pollution. ( p22, Held 2004). Globalists see that globalization is disappearing as there is less control of the nation states than in the past. Globalization is an inevitable trajectory of development , so any attempts to resist it are doomed to failure. (p22 Held 2004). Internationalists views argue that globalization is a myth. They believe that most economic and social activity is regional rather that global. Transformanationalists views argue that the nation state still remains powerful they also see the problems can be reversed by restructuring and accommodate the new forms of global governance. Looking at the views, the transformanationlaist on globalization making nation state obsolete seems to be the most plausible from any finding at this stage as it seems that the government can adjust there roles instead of losing power altogether. Nation states are seen as blocks of territory with fixed borders, it is argued that these boundaries are not as important as they used to be due to globalization. There has been an increase in the co-operation and mutual understanding between countries as politicians try to elude national boundaries, or which on based in other countries. There has been a dramatic increase in the number of intergovernmental organisations IGOs around the globe from 37 in 1909 to nearly 300 in 1999. Globalists would have us believe that the governments are fragmenting it is more likely the governments are learning to accommodate a more complex international co-ordination than has been in the past. The main problem with this increase in intergovernmental associations is that the foreign office find it more difficult to control the increased amount of intergovernmental operation. Looking at how these organizations set up it is obvious that the representatives for each country are actually representing the nation state they come from. Globalization encourages the growth of communication and organisations that link human kind across the globe. Because the communication link and interaction people are not constrained by their national boundaries , this does not mean that a nation state loses its sovereignty. UK government does not always agree completely in its decisions, However the people of the UK still seem to stay confident in their nation state as this is what we identify ourselves with. The nation state that we identify with most is the UK and is very important because there has been such change over the authorities. Governments might have found themselves subject to actions from other organisations that would of not happened in the past, as back then we would have only cared for our own need without any outside interference. For example the UK government might have been under some sort of control of the EU and the World Trade Organisations. This would have been said to create a more uncertain society in terms of the nation state identity by tranformationalist. According to inter-nationalist there are a few general multi-national corporations than thought they are more accurately described as transnational corporations (TNCs) which are not governed from any national base, and which have a more genuinely international organisation personnels. (Thompson, 2000 p103). The percentage of a countries trade is global and often thought as being greater than it actually is. Globalists view MNCs are taxing over from government power, however this is flawed as it is still the government who has the power to enforce laws and legislation. Transformationalist would argue that there is a new global politics appearing, this does not mean that all government have an equal say in global decision making. The poorest people in the world still have a little say in what goes on. In the UK our nation state is still very important. The government might have to adjust to consider other countries but a majority of these countries are within the EU more than around the world, it looks like the UK government is becoming more regionalised than globalized. USA and the EU and Japan may work together and some other countries ignored, mainly the poorer ones. This is quite true as most powerful economies have more political power than the poor countries that have little power. The UK government may have had to change its roles on a local level more than global level, but the claim that globalization has made the nation state obsolete, its more likely that it is being reshaped within the EU but nothing says if this is really happening at a global level. As we can see in my conclusion is that globalization is changing,and how fast and to what extent that this is happening might be a slightly exaggerated. This does not mean the end of the nation state, it just means that it is being redefined. Globalization in one way or another is creating a more uncertain, yet diverse world. Each of the points have there flaws and their valid areas to each of their arguments, the transformationalists view of the government having to adjust the way it is run is a very valid point. Each argument could be seen valid depending on how its seen and what you believe in, but every individual will have there own opinion on each outcome. REFERENCES Kelly, B. and Prokhovnik, R. (2004) Economic globalization? in Held, D. (ed) A Globalizing World? Culture, Economics, Politics, London, Routledge/The Open University.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Utilitarianism or God, do we have to choose? Essay -- essays research

Utilitarianism or God, do we have to choose? During many years that question is being formulated and many scholars had a very difficult time to decide if it was possible to follow God’s will and the principle of utility maximization. The principle of utility maximization was a theory created by John Stuart Mill and presented in his book Utilitarianism (1863). Societies throughout the years have argued that those theories are hard to combine, since Utilitarianism seeks for self-development and God’s teachings seek for community growth. This paper will start with a context on actuality of society, then it will try to clarify what is the Bible view of Utilitarianism by explaining the principle of Utilitarianism, what society has to change to avoid to forget God’s principles and only base their behavior on Mill’s theory, how society should accept both theories and combine them into one in order to create a better society. An important part of this discussion is based on understanding what is happening with society nowadays. Societies all around the world are becoming more and more individualists, what is causing problems that can affect the whole world, problems such as terrorists attacks, war or even in a lower but maybe more important scale hunger. This is basically happening because every single member of every society is only looking after themselves instead of the group, they are only trying to progress individually, but most of these individuals forget that to really achieve the top you need help, and that help comes from other individuals. The following part of the paper will try to clarify the biblical view of Mill’s theory, the Utilitarianism. Utilitarianism has always been seen as an opposite theory from God’s teachings. That is not absolutely correct. Jesus gave us the major example of understanding Mill’s principle by dying on the cross. Of course it is simple to say that Jesus died for every human being and that is a proof of community spirit instead of individualism, however Jesus showed that He was following actually not His will but God’s will, what is showed on the passage before Jesus is captured by the roman soldiers: â€Å"O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me: nevertheless not as I will, but as thou wilt† (Matthew 26:39). What Jesus was showing is that every single human has the principle of utilitarianism inside themselve... ...s Consulted †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Rose, John T., â€Å"Utility Versus Self-Sacrificing Love† Christian Scholar’s Review Fall 2004 †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Leightner, Jonathan, â€Å"‘Not my Will†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢:Further Thoughts on Utility Versus Self-Sacrificing Love† Christian Scholar’s Review Fall 2004 †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  NRSV Bible †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"FAO unveils global anti-hunger program† http://www.fao.org/english/newsroom/news/2002/5500-en.html †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Mill, John Stuart, Utilitarianism, Hackett Publishing Company Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana, 1979, Original Publication, 1861 †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Harcourt, Edward, â€Å"Mill’s ‘Sanctions’, Internalization and the Self† European Journal of Philosophy; Oct98, Vol. 6 Issue 3, p318, 17p †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Kant Immanuel, Grounding For The Metaphysics Of Morals, Third Edition, Hackett Publishing Company Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana, 1993, Original Publication, 1785 †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Smart, and Bernard Williams. Utilitarianism: For and Against. Trowbridge: Redwood Burn, 1973 †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Lewis, C.S., â€Å"Mere Christianity† Harper Collins Edition 2001

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Hybrid Electric Vehicle and Biological Cotton Essay

Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen. Firstly, let’s ask ourselves a few questions. How is my life now? Am I used to the air pollution or the unhealthy food? Only if you feel a little unsatisfied with your life quality, you may benefit from my today’s topic: LOHAS. It is very popular in the west. Now, one of four Americans has joined it and one third of Europeans have done so. You may still feel confused but don’t worry. Today, I will tell you what LOHAS is and its main characters in human’s basic necessities of life. First, let’s see the definition of LOHAS. It is a lifestyle coming from the United States. It means living in a healthy and sustainable way. To be more specific, it represents caring about family’s health and ecological environment when doing shopping. Its concept is â€Å"healthy, happy, environmental, and sustainable†. Now that you know the definition of LOHAS, let’s look at its main features in clothing, food, housing and transportation. First, in the area of clothing, LOHAS encourages people to wear natural fabrics. I’ll take Biological Cotton as an example. When planting Biological Cotton without chemical fertilizer, it reduces 70% of water consumption and 50% of cost compared to common cotton. According to the above statistics, Biological Cotton consumes much less cost and environmental resources than other fabrics. You may think although it’s healthy, it may be old-fashioned. But the fact is not like that. Many fashion brands take use of Biological Cotton, like H&M and Levi’s. Second, in the area of eating, LOHAS encourages organic food. In the production of organic food, people don’t use chemical fertilizer or pesticides to guarantee the rich nutrition, good quality and high safety. In the UK, Prince Charles founded â€Å"Duchy Originals†, a brand of organic food. â€Å"Duchy Originals† covers a large range of food, for example meat, diary and chocolate. Third, in the area of housing, LOHAS encourages the way of low-energy consumption and recycling. According to REUTERS, there is an advanced water-cycling system in the President Bush’s farm. It divides the used residential water into two categories. One is showering water, considered as light polluted water. It will be purified together with rainfall. The other is water used in the kitchen and the toilet, regarded as heavy polluted water. It will be purified in a more complex way. Then all the purified water will be used to irrigate trees and flowers in the garden. Last, in the area of transportation, LOHAS encourages an environmental-friendly way. Try to take public transport as possible as you can. But if you want to buy a car in the future, you can consider buying an HEV. HEV is hybrid electric vehicle. It is driven by both electric power and petrol. It release less pollution and can always function well. As we have seen, LOHAS means the lifestyles of health and sustainability. It has its own unique features in people’s basic necessities of life. Since it’s beneficial to our body health and the whole environment, I hope more individuals will join it. Thank you.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Separate Peace Discussion Essay essays

Separate Peace Discussion Essay essays In the novel A Separate Peace the friendship of Finny and Gene is very similar to that of any organization. First it should be made known that most organizations are a way of fitting in with people of similar interests, views, or goals. Most organization, no matter how democratic, will always have some kind of leader over the rest. In instances of many leaders one will always be above the rest. These leaders will have more power, influence, and respect then the others. No matter how erratic their decisions are, their are always people that will follow or risk of being different, ultimately not fitting in. The fear of loneliness or rejection will always clump together the masses. Organizations are a way of showing or pretending to be like others as an effort to fit in or risk being one's true self for fearing to be rejected by society. In the novel A Separate Peace Finny and Gene's relationship shows most if not all the signs of a organization. Finny seems as in control as any leader would be in a organization. He even takes the first step of starting it by saying, "He and Gene are best of friends now." This statement confirms that he initiated the friendship. As a normal person Gene was sure at first if he would accept Finny's friendship, but after evaluating he's benefits as part of the population he accepts the friendship. Gene seemed to have tested Finny's qualities before offering his friendship to see if Finny was good enough by seeing if he was willing to jump from a tree. This would show Finny if he was willing to trust him and if he would do things that Finny wanted him to. The tree jumping would also prove to be the joining procedure to the Summer Suicide Society they would later create and head. After the offer for friendship by Finny, Finny and Gene got involved in a wrestling match with eac h other. This like many organizations is like rough housing to show belongi ...

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

High Brow and Low Brow Culture The Fall of American Popular Culture in the Contemporary Society essays

High Brow and Low Brow Culture The Fall of American Popular Culture in the Contemporary Society essays The emergence of the 20th century gave way to the development of high mass consumption of media goods and services, which occurred due to the proliferation of advertising and increased manufacturing of commercial goods in the market. The advent of high mass consumption furthered with the development of information technology, where computers and the Internet paved the way for the "globalization" and easier and faster transmission of information suitable for mass consumption. Throughout history, American popular culture is determined mainly through its entertainment industry. The need to advertise for surplus goods by manufacturing companies allowed for the growth of the country's entertainment industry, which in turn, dominated American culture and society. Thus, Americans have inevitably been linked to entertainment icons and personalities shown on mass mediathe phenomenon called as the McDonaldization' of Americathat is, the reign of consumer culture. The worldwide spread and influence of American popular culture all over the world, however, led to the development of critiques that consider American pop culture as decadent, what with the seemingly limitless and liberal way in which pop culture goods, products, and services are produced and consumed by the masses. This is reflected in Feigenbaum's (2003) analysis on the effects of American pop culture on the globalization process ongoing in our society today. In his study, he illustrated how the advent of digital technology made it inevitable to produce pop culture goods and services (artifacts). The ease in producing these artifacts have, according to the author, has developed the perception that American pop culture is morally degenerating' and/or illustration of "rotten Moral degeneracy was the result of the prevalence of liberalism in the expression of ideas in...

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Racial Profiling on Drug Warfare Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Racial Profiling on Drug Warfare - Essay Example However, one can recognize the modest changes in white racist domination in the United States without downplaying the strong relationship between being black and being a target of serious racial discrimination. In one way or another, all black Americans and Caucasians continue to suffer discrimination because white domination of black Americans and other people of color remains a major organizing principle for group life in the United States. According to statistical results "Although African Americans comprise only 12.2 percent of the population and 13 percent of drug users, they make up 38 percent of those arrested for drug offenses and 59 percent of those convicted of drug offenses causing critics to call the war on drugs the "New Jim Crow" (Race and the Drug War n.d.). The racial hierarchy is supported by a range of dominant-group prejudices and stereotypes, yet it is perpetuated most centrally by the discrimination carried out by many whites on a recurring basis. Age-old pattern s of racial inequality-of unjust enrichment and unjust impoverishment-are reproduced by the daily routines of antiblack discrimination. For instance, "During the height of the war on drugs, from 1986 to 1991, the number of white drug offenders in state prisons increased by 110 percent. The number of black drug offenders grew by 465 percent" (Shaw 2000). Police pays a special attention to African-Americans and Caucasians because of ethical differences and stereotypes. It should be no surprise then, that African Americans are often depicted as criminals in mass media. Crime in America is often portrayed in blackface, seemingly suggesting not only that African Americans and Caucasians are likely to be involved in crime, but that they are responsible for most of the crime in America today. "Racial profiling is the law enforcement practice of substituting skin color for evidence as grounds for suspicion" (Race and the Drug War n.d.). Contemporary patterns of discrimination are grounded in the benefits that whites have historically secured. All forms of racial discrimination transmit the legacy of the past, that of slavery and legal segregation. Today discriminatory practices reproduce and reinforce the unjust impoverishment and enrichment of the past. Discrimination also reflects and perpetuates the age-old racist ideology, with its asso ciated array of anti-black images and attitudes. When blacks and Caucasians encounter whites in a broad array of contemporary settings, they often meet negative beliefs about their abilities, values, and orientations. Racial barriers persist today because a substantial majority of whites harbor anti-black sentiments, images, and beliefs and because a large minority are very negative in their perspectives. When most whites interact with black Americans at work, in restaurants, on the street, at school, or in the media they tend to think about the latter, either consciously or unconsciously, in terms of racist stereotypes inherited from the past and constantly reiterated and reinforced in the present (Daum 65). Police may actively persecute blacks, or they may engage in an array of avoidance behaviors.

Friday, November 1, 2019

Operation management of McDonalds Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Operation management of McDonalds - Assignment Example This essay discusses that while the meanings of â€Å"operation† and â€Å"management† taken separately are commonly understood, when the two are combined an entirely different idea is formed. This field of business that seeks to define and standardise things could not itself be fully summed up in one comprehensive idea. Lawson perceptively pointed out that operations management is conceived of according to varying levels of scope and significance. Operations management has been variably defined as: (1) â€Å"The design, operation and improvement of the systems that create and deliver the firm’s primary product and service combinations†; (2) â€Å"The design, operation and improvement of the internal and external systems, resources, and technologies that create and deliver the firm’s primary product and service combinations†; and â€Å"The design, operation and improvement of the internal and external systems, resources, and technologies tha t create product and service combinations in any type of organization†. Mosby, Crumbaker & Urban observed that operations management is focused mainly on making sure that the firm’s business operations function efficiently and effectively, towards greater reliability and availability of the firm’s systems and services. Among the many duties and responsibilities which the operations manager is expected to fulfil, which generally fall within a five broad roles and responsibilities. ... These are identified and categorized by Operations Manager.com (2011) as: (1) Logistics management; (2) Budget management; (3) Operational strategizing; (4) Management of support services; and (5) Management of third party relations. According to Pycraft, Singh and Phihlela (2000), the exact responsibilities and role of operations management will depend primarily upon the nature of the organization’s business. In general, the classes of activities that operations managers directly discharge, which apply to all types of operations, include: (1) Understanding the operation’s strategic objectives; (2) Developing an operations strategy for the organization; (3) Designing the operation’s products, services and processes; (4) Planning and controlling the operation; and (5) Improving the performance of the operation (p. 31) In a survey conducted by Professor Arnoud de Meyer and reported in Pycraft, et al (2000, p. 33), a factory manager’s work was analysed and th e following breakdown was arrived at: Table 1: Breakdown of factory manager’s work Activity % of time Degree of change (1 = spending less time 7 = spending more time) Direct supervision and support Consulting with plant staff Consulting with upper management Consulting with sales and marketing Communicating with customers Communicating with suppliers Consulting with Research and Development Dealing with the community Training (as trainer) Training (as trainee) 22 16 12 10 7 7 5 5 4 4 3.5 3.9 4.0 4.8 4.8 4.4 4.7 4.5 4.6 4.6 Source: Pycraft, Singh & Phihlela, 2000, p.33 The foregoing table highlights the many varied concerns of the operations manager today. No longer is the manager confined to the manufacturing shopfloor and limited to ensuring that the right number of units are produced. The